The value of imports (chiefly coal, wheat, scrap-iron and cheese) for 1904 was £1,239,048, and the value of exports (chiefly macaroni and green fruit) £769,100.
Alloy scrap containing chiefly copper with, say 5 or 6% of gold,.
For administrative convenience the "stars" - whose name comes from the scrap of crimson cloth worn on cap and jacket sleeve - have been generally concentrated at Portland, and employed in labours specially allotted to them, for the most part demanding a higher rate of intelligence than the general average shown by convicts.
A scrap of annals has been found extending from the earliest times to the Vth Dynasty, as well as a very fragmentary list of kings reaching nearly to the end of the Middle Kingdom, to help out the scattered data of the other monuments.
Finally, the strain upon municipal finances incident to a realization of civic improvements has called attention to intangible wealth: street railways are no longer taxed as scrap iron but as working systems, with due attention to their franchises; and there is a beginning of the doctrine that the increase in value of unimproved realty constitutes income that should be taxed.
The open-hearth process consists in making molten steel out of pig or cast iron and " scrap," i.e.
Version of cast iron into steel, of course, consists in lessening its content of the several foreign elements, carbon, silicon, phosphorus, &c. The open-hearth process does this by two distinct steps: (I) by oxidizing and removing these elements by means of the flame of the furnace, usually aided by the oxygen of light charges of iron ore, and (2) by diluting them with scrap steel or its equivalent.
The " pig and ore " or " Siemens " variety of the process works chiefly by oxidation, the " pig and scrap " or " Siemens-Martin " variety chiefly by dilution, sometimes indeed by extreme dilution, as when Io parts of cast iron are diluted with 90 parts of scrap. Both varieties may be carried out in the basic and dephosphorizing way, i.e.
The proportion of pig to scrap used depends chiefly on the relative cost of these two materials, but sometimes in part also on the carbon-content which the resultant steel is to have.
Thus in the Westphalian pig and scrap practice, scrap usually forms 75 or even 80% of the charge, and pig only from 20 to 25%, indeed only enough to supply the carbon inevitably burnt out in melting the charge and heating it up to a proper casting temperature; and here the charge lasts only about 6 hours.
In some British and Swedish " pig and ore " practice (§ 98), on the other hand, little or no scrap is used, and here the removal of the large quantity of carbon, silicon and phosphorus prolongs the process to 17 hours.
Thus the actual cost of conversion by the acid process is materially less than by the basic, but this difference is more than outweighed in most places by the greater cost of pig and scrap free enough from phosphorus to be used in the undephosphorizing acid process.
The oxygenated metal is prepared by melting cast iron diluted with as much scrap steel as is available, and oxidizing it with the flame and with iron ore as it lies in a thin molten layer, on the hearth of a large open-hearth furnace; the thinness of the layer hastens the oxidation, and the large size of the furnace permits considerable frothing.
Often the formula was written on a strip of rag or a scrap of papyrus and tied round the neck of the person for whom it was intended.
Tradition, mythology and later customs make it possible to recover a scrap of the political history of that far-off time.
The liquor was then filtered from the iron oxides, and the filtrate treated with scrap iron, which precipitated the copper and reformed ferrous chloride, which could be used in the first stage of the process.
In time the original impure copper of the plates becomes replaced by refined copper, but if the plates are initially very impure and dissolve irregularly, it may happen that much residual scrap may have to be remelted, or that some of the metal may be twice refined, thus involving a waste of energy.
The mass, along with certain proportions of water, scrap-iron and mercury, is then placed in barrels, which are made to rotate so that the several ingredients are thoroughly mixed.
He was, after his student course, appointed stipendiarius by the Arna-Magnaean trustees, and worked for fourteen years in the Arna-Magnaean Library till, as he said, he knew every scrap of old vellum and of Icelandic written paper in that whole collection.
It is manufactured by piling pyrites in heaps and exposing to atmospheric oxidation, the ferrous sulphate thus formed being dissolved in water, and the solution run into tanks, where any sulphuric acid which may be formed is decomposed by adding scrap iron.
The chief impurities are copper and ferric sulphates; the former may be removed by adding scrap iron, which precipitates the copper; the latter is eliminated by recrystallization.
Partly for this reason and partly because pieces of wood and dirt are apt to be included with the scrap, the market value of Ceara rubber is usually less than that of Para.
Hamilton's A Staff Officer's Scrap Book, and the second to the reports of the British attaches (The Russo-Japanese War: British Officers' Reports, War Office, 1908).
Scrap mica is ground to powder or used in the manufacture of micanite.
The common practice in the United States is to use about equal parts of pig and scrap, and here the usual length of a charge is about 112 hours.
For instance it lasts only about 82 hours when equal parts of pig and scrap are used, instead of the 112 hours of the basic process.
For over forty years Arni stuck to his task, rescuing every scrap he could lay hands on from the risks of the Icelandic climate and carelessness, and when he died only one good MSS.
We must live, we must love, and we must believe that we live not only today on this scrap of earth, but have lived and shall live forever, there, in the Whole, said Pierre, and he pointed to the sky.