BOOK-SCORPION, or FALSE SCORPION, minute arachnids superficially resembling tailless scorpions and belonging to the order Pseudoscorpiones of the class Arachnida.
Occurring in all temperate and tropical countries, book-scorpions live for the most part under stones, beneath the bark of trees or in vegetable detritus.
It is possibly for the purpose of feeding on parasitic mites that book-scorpions lodge themselves beneath the wing-cases of large tropical beetles; and the same explanation, in default of a better, may be extended to their well-known and oft-recorded habit of seizing hold of the legs of horse-flies or other two-winged insects.
For safety during hibernation and moulting, book-scorpions spin a small spherical cocoon.
The gigantic scorpions (Pandinus imperator) - more than 6 in.
(From Owen.) of the liver or great digestive gland is found in the scorpions, where the axial portion of the digestive canal is short and straight, and the lateral ducts sufficiently wide to admit food into the ramifications of the gland there to be digested; whilst in the spiders the gland is reduced to a series of simple caeca.
Linnaeus in his Systema naturae (1735) grouped under the class Insecta all segmented animals with firm exoskeleton and jointed limbs - that is to say, the insects, centipedes, millipedes, crustaceans, spiders, scorpions and their allies.
The phenomena, known as "protective resemblance," or similarity to inanimate objects or vegetation, and the kindred phenomenon of "mimicry," or beneficial likeness to certain protected species of animals, are common in the group. In these particulars, considered in their entirety, spiders show a marked contrast to other Arachnida, such as the scorpions, pedipalps, book-scorpions and so-called harvest spiders, which by comparison are remarkably uniform, within the limits of the orders, in structure, habits and other respects.
So far as is known, however, only the large spiders belonging to this group possess this special means of defence, and in many other species this is accompanied by highly-developed stridulating organs resembling those of rattlesnakes and scorpions in function.
According to the Arabian geographer, Yaqut, Persian scorpions were thrown into the place when it was besieged by Anushirwan; hence their numbex to-day.
Mosquitoes are rarely troublesome; gadflies, and a large spider (hangeyu), which spins a web resembling golden silk, are common, as are scorpions and centipeces.
The list of reptiles includes the venomous Vipera ammodytes and Pelias berus, while scorpions and lizards infest the stony wastes of the Karst.
Apec vr7, a spider) to a class which he instituted for the reception of the spiders, scorpions and mites, previously classified by Linnaeus in the order Aptera of his great group Insecta.
Their present function in scorpions is not ascertained.
48 and 49) as compared with living scorpions (see fig.
Io) show that the early scorpions were aquatic, and we may hope some day in better-preserved specimens than [?!
Other large Arachnids have not been derived from the scorpions directly, but have independently developed from aquatic ancestors, and from one of these independent groups - probably through the harvest-men from the spiders - the Acari have finally resulted.
Other side - tending downwards from the scorpion towards the Acari - are the Pedipalpi, the spiders, the book-scorpions, the harvest-men and the water-mites.
Which would be recognized at once as true scorpions by a child or a savage.
- Comparison of the sixth prosomatic limb of a recent scorpion (B), of Palaeophonus (C), and of Limulus (A), showing their agreement in the number of segments; in the existence of a movable spine, Sp, at the distal border of the fifth segment; in the correspondence of the two claws at the free end of the limb of Scorpio with two spines similarly placed in Limulus; and, lastly, in the correspondence of the three talon-like spines carried on the distal margin of segment six of recent scorpions with the four larger but similarly situated spines on the leg of Limulus; s, groove dividing the ankylosed segments 4 and 5 of the Limulus leg into two.
Sci., Igor.) orifices of the lung-chambers of modern scorpions, can be found in the Scottish specimen of Palaeophonus, which presents the ventral surface of the animal to view.
Fossil scorpions of the modern type are found in the Coal Measures.
At the present day scorpions of various genera are found in all the warm regions of the world.
The scorpions use their large chelae for seizing prey and for fighting with one another.
Scorpions of various species have been observed to make a hissing noise when disturbed, or even when not disturbed.
Scorpions copulate with the ventral surfaces in contact.
For information as to the embryology of scorpions, the reader is referred to the works named in the bibliography below.
Scorpions do not possess spinning organs nor form either snares or nests, so far as is known.
The fifth pair of prosomatic appendages is used by these scorpions when burrowing, to kick back the sand as the burrow is excavated by the great chelae.
References to works dealing with the taxonomy and geographical distribution of scorpions are given at the end of this article (28).
At the same time we are not justified in supposing that the scorpions stand in any way as an intermediate grade between any of the existing Epectinata and the Delobranchia.
Like the scorpions the spiders have a special tendency to cannibalism, and accordingly the male, in approaching the female for the purpose of fertilizing her, is liable to be fallen upon and sucked dry by the object of his attentions.
- The book-scorpions - so called because they were, in old times, found not unfrequently in libraries - are found in rotten wood and under stones.
The similarity of the form of their appendages to those of the scorpions suggests that they are a degenerate group derived from the latter, but the large size of the prae-genital somite in them would indicate a connexion with forms preceding the scorpions.
Zittel, American edition of his Palaeontology (the Macmillan Co., New York), where ample references to the literature of Trilobitae and Eurypteridae will be found; also references to literature of fossil Scorpions and Spiders; 23.
Lankester, " Notes on some Habits of Scorpions," Journ.
Berlin, 1861; Pocock, " Classification of Scorpions," Ann.
Scorpions are common, but are considered less poisonous than some European species.
6) or water-scorpions (q.v.) - two British species - are distinguished by their threesegmented feelers, their raptorial fore-legs (in which the shin and foot, fused together, work like a sharp knife-blade on the grooved thigh), and their elongate tail-processes formed of the abdominal pleura and used for respiration.
Scorpions and tarantulas are numerous, and lizards, frogs, beetles, ants, butterflies, moths and flies are abundant.
3 No representation of the seventh sign has yet been discovered on any Euphratean monument; but it is noticeable that the eighth is frequently doubled,4 and it is difficult to avoid seeing in the pair of zodiacal scorpions carved on Assyrian cylinders the prototype of the Greek scorpion and claws.
Birds and mammals take the first place; the leading collections devote a good deal of attention to reptiles and batrachians; fishes and aquatic invertebrata are most often to be found only when there are special aquaria, whilst non-aquatic invertebrates are seldom to be seen and at most consist of a few moths and butterflies, spiders, scorpions and centipedes, molluscs and crustaceans.
Scorpions are numerous in the arid regions.
--De virginibus velandis, De corona militis, De fuga in persecutione, De exhortatione castitatis, De scorpiace (a booklet against the Gnostics, whom he compares to scorpions; it is written in praise of martyrdom), Adversus Hermogenem, De censu animae adv.
Insects are numerous, and of about 500 species of beetle some 80% are not known to exist elsewhere; cockroaches and green locusts are pests, as are, also, mosquitoes,' wasps, scorpions, centipedes and white ants, which have all been introduced from elsewhere.
Scorpions noted for the virulence of their poison abound as well as horse leeches in the tanks.
Poisonous or noxious animals usually have some special advertising attribute, sometimes the display of conspicuous coloration, as in the skunk; sometimes the emission of sound as in the rattlesnake; sometimes a combination of the two, as in the common porcupine and the large black scorpions of Africa and India.
They deal for the most part with the hearing of diseases, the bites of snakes and scorpions, &c., but incidentally cast many sidelights on the mythology and superstitious beliefs.
Scorpions and large spiders are a universal pest.
It is largely arid and there are no permanent streams. Its zoology resembles that of Sokotra, but the fauna includes land shells and scorpions peculiar to Abd-elKuri.