In some instances the cones are quite intact, and the beds of ash and scoriae are as yet almost unaffected by denuding agencies.
In 1886 there was a serious volcanic eruption in the outlying island of Nivafoou, and at the same time Falcon Reef, normally awash at high water, discharged sufficient scoriae and pumice to form a new island 50 ft.
The last distinctive epithet was derived from the little hamlet in the vicinity which furnished shelter, not only to the workmen, but to the monks of St Jerome who were afterwards to be in possession of the monastery; and the hamlet itself is generally but perhaps erroneously supposed to be indebted for its name to the scoriae or dross of certain old iron mines.
Lava streams are seldom emitted from these volcanoes, the material erupted consisting chiefly of ash and scoriae, which are spread over a very wide extent of country.
In the Siebengebirge the little crater of Roderberg, with its lavas and scoriae of leucite-basalt, is posterior to some of the Pleistocene river deposits.
In Strabo's time, though the mines had almost ceased to yield, silver was obtained in considerable quantities from the scoriae; and at the present day a large amount of lead is got in the same way, the work being chiefly carried on by two companies, one of which is French and the other Greek.
The Icelandic volcanoes may be divided into three classes: (I) cone-shaped, like Vesuvius, built up of alternate layers of ashes, scoriae and lava; (2) cupola-shaped, with an easy slope and a vast crater opening at the top - these shield-shaped cupolas are composed entirely of layers of lava, and their inclination is seldom steeper than 7°-8°; (3) chains of craters running close alongside a fissure in the ground.