At this point Josephus cites the testimony of Polybius: - " Scopas, the general of Ptolemy, advanced into the highlands and subdued the nation of the Jews in the winter.
After the defeat of Scopas, Antiochus gained Batanaea and Samaria and Abila and Gadara, and a little later those of the Jews who live round the Temple called Jerusalem adhered to him."
But the recovery was brief, for in 198 Scopas was defeated by Antiochus at the battle of the Panium, near the sources of the Jordan, a battle which marks the end of Ptolemaic rule in Palestine.
In ancient times it was disputed whether the original was the work of Praxiteles or Scopas, and modern authorities are not agreed as to its identity with the group mentioned by Pliny.
The original temple was said to have been built by Aleus, the founder of the city; it was superseded by a larger one which was destroyed by fire in 395 B.C. The rebuilding was entrusted to Scopas, the great sculptor; and it is probable that he not only acted as architect, but also provided the sculptural groups which ornamented the pediments.
The other heads are badly damaged owing to the fact that the white marble from Doliana, of which they are made, does not resist damp. But they still show in the intensity of their expression the power of expressing passion for which Scopas was famous beyond all other ancient sculptors.
Although the figure of the hero frequently occurs in groups - such as the work of Scopas showing his removal to the island of Leuke by Poseidon and Thetis, escorted by Nereids and Tritons, and the combat over his dead body in the Aeginetan sculptures - no isolated statue or bust can with certainty be identified with him; the statue in the Louvre (from the Villa Borghese), which was thought to have the best claim, is generally taken for Ares or possibly Alexander.
37); in the temple near the Flaminian Circus he admires the Ares and the Aphrodite of Scopas, "which would suffice to give renown to any other spot."
Scopas, in a famous group, represented him surrounded by the denizens of the sea, escorting Achilles to the islands of the blest.
And in 198 B.C. Antiochus heard that Scopas, Ptolemy's hired commander-in-chief had retaken Coele-Syria (Polyb.
For these sufficient reasons Antiochus hurried back and defeated Scopas at Paneas, which was known later as Caesarea Philippi (Polyb.
As described in the writing of Cicero, Simonides, a Greek poet who lived around 600 BC, was hired by a nobleman named Scopas to write a poem in his honor.
When the final work included extensive praise for the twin gods Castor and Pollux, Scopas complained.
Later that evening when Simonides was at a banquet with Scopas, he got word that two young men were outside looking for him.