But the attempt not only to treat ethics scientifically, but actually to subordinate the principles of conduct to the principles of existing biological science or group of sciences biological in character, was reserved for postDarwinian moral philosophers.
The truth is that, while Locke agrees entirely with Hobbes as to the egoistic basis of rational conduct, and the interpretation of " good " and " evil" as " pleasure " and " pain," or that which is productive of pleasure and pain, he yet agrees entirely with Hobbes's opponents in holding ethical rules to be actually obligatory independently of political society, and capable of being scientifically constructed on principles intuitively known, - though he does not regard these principles as implanted in the mind at birth.
Metallurgical operations, such as smelting, roasting, and refining, were scientifically investigated, and in some degree explained, by Georg Agricola and Carlo Biringuiccio; ceramics was studied by Bernard Palissy, who is also to be remembered as an early worker in agricultural chemistry, having made experiments on the effect of manures on soils and crops; while general technical chemistry was enriched by Johann Rudolf Glauber.1
Till recently the rabbit has generally been known scientifically as Lepus cuniculus, but it is now frequently regarded, at least by systematic naturalists, as the representative of a genus by itself, under the The Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
Loriti Glareanus (1527) were the first who dealt scientifically with the principles underlying their construction.
More than 80 methods of showing the hills have found advocates since that time, but all methods must be based upon contours to be scientifically satisfactory.
To obtain the effect it was necessary to reproduce as far as possible the conditions under which the early craftsmen worked, and to create scientifically glass which is impure in colour, irregular in section, and non-homogeneous in texture.
COYOTE, the Indian name for a North American member of the dog family, also known as the prairie-wolf, and scientifically as Canis latrans.
Dr Wallich's attribution of this and other specimens subsequently sent in to the genus Camellia, although scientifically defensible, unfortunately diverted attention from the significance of the discovery.
Its contents, although of course of the utmost practical importance to the lawyers of that time, and of much value still, historical as well as legal, are far less interesting and scientifically admirable than the extracts preserved in the Digest.
A formula such as the equality of the interior angles of a triangle to two right angles is only scientifically known when it is not of isosceles or scalene triangle that it is known, nor even of all the several types of triangle collectively, but as a predicate of triangle recognized as the widest class-concept of which it is true, the first stage in the progressive differentiation of figure at which it can be asserted.° Three points obviously need development, the nature of definition, its connexion with the syllogism in which the middle term is cause or ground, and the way in which we have assurance of our principles.
Scientifically it is known as Cercopithecus (Erythrocebus) pates, and typifies a section of its genus of which the other representative is the East African nisnas (C. [E.] pyrrhonotus).
In 1831 another epidemic occurred in Constantinople and Roumelia; in 1837 again in Roumelia and in Odessa - its last appearance in these regions, and the last on the European continent except an isolated outbreak in Dalmatia in 1840, and one in Constantinople in 1841.4 The plague-epidemics in Egypt between 1833 and 1845 are very important in the history of plague, since the disease was almost for the first time scientifically studied in its home by skilled European physicians, chiefly French.
These terms indicate moments in the whole process of modern history which were opposed, each to the other, and both to the Renaissance; and it is needful to bear in mind that they have, scientifically speaking, a quite separate existence.
The orography of Portugal cannot be scientifically studied except in relation to that of Spain, for there is no dividing line between the principal Portuguese ranges and the highlands of Galicia, Leon and Spanish Estremadura.
Technically and scientifically the term syrup is also employed to denote viscid, generally residual, liquids, containing substances other than sugar in solution.
With Polybius the greatness of Rome is a phenomenon to be critically studied and scientifically explained; the rise of Rome forms an important chapter in universal history, and must be dealt with, not as an isolated fact, but in connexion with the general march of events in the civilized world.
Although he had not been scientifically trained in music, he composed melodies for many of his songs, and a considerable number of them are sung by all classes in every part of Germany.
COYPU, the native name of a large South American aquatic rodent mammal, known very generally among European residents in the country as nutria (the Spanish word for otter) and scientifically as Myocastor (or Myopotamus) coypu.
- Before actual boring proved that the belief was well founded, it had long been scientifically demonstrated that water would probably be obtained in the Cretaceous formation which underlies the whole of the north-west of New South Wales; and it is probable that the artesian water-bearing - basin extends much farther south than was previously supposed.
The Furens dam, already referred to as the earliest type of a scientifically designed structure of the kind, is subject to a pressure of about 166 ft.
Although long known locally, it was not until 1825 that it was scientifically examined by Rev.
Babuin, which is itself derived from Babon, the Egyptian deity to whom it was sacred), properly the designation of the long-muzzled, medium-tailed Egyptian monkey, scientifically known as Papio anubis; in a wider sense applied to all the members of the genus Papio (formerly known as Cynocephalus) now confined to Africa and Arabia, although in past times extending into India.
IBEX, one of the names of the Alpine wild goat, otherwise known as the steinbok and bouquetin, and scientifically as Capra ibex.
In fact the yield of this section relatively to cultivated acreage is normally fully equal to that of the eastern section; a result quite consistent with the scientifically proven fertility of semi-arid lands.
African antelope, scientifically known as Cephalophus grimmi; the popular name alluding to its habit of diving into and threading its way through thick bush.
Strictly speaking, however, the term ant-lion applies to the larval form, which has been known scientifically for over two hundred years, on account of its peculiar and forbidding appearance and its skilful and unique manner of entrapping prey by means of a pitfall.
In 1769 he wrote his Memoire sur les prrts a interet, on the occasion of a scandalous financial crisis at Angouleme, the peculiar interest of which is that in it the question of lending money at interest was for the first time treated scientifically, and not merely from the ecclesiastical point of view.
Medicated soaps, first investigated scientifically by Unna of Hamburg in 1886, contain certain substances which exercise a specific influence on the skin.
The museums, enriched by a constant inflow of works of art and inscriptions, have been carefully and scientifically arranged, and afford opportunities for systematic study denied to scholars of the past generation.
Comburere, to burn up), in chemistry, the process of burning or, more scientifically, the oxidation of a substance, generally with the production of flame and the evolution of heat.