With them may be associated the anomalous Sciadopitys of Japan.
Sciadopitys - Umbrella Pine.
Artificially induced dwarfed plants of Pinus, Cupressus, Sciadopitys (umbrella pine) and other genera are commonly cultivated by the Japanese.
In Sciadopitys similar spurs occur, each bearing a single needle, which in its grooved surface and in the possession of a double vascular bundle bears traces of an origin from two needle-leaves.
A peculiarity of these leaves is the inverse orientation of the vascular tissue; each of the two veins has its phloem next the upper and the xylem towards the lower surface of the leaf; this unusual position of the xylem and phloem may be explained by regarding the needle of Sciadopitys as being composed of a pair of leaves borne on a short axillary shoot and fused by their margins (fig.
Another view is to apply to the seminiferous scale an explanation similar to that suggested by von Mohl in the case of the double needle of Sciadopitys, and to consider the seed-bearing scale as being made up of a pair of leaves (fig.
- Diagrammatic treatment of: A, Double needle of Sciadopitys (a, a, leaves; b, shoot; Br, bract).
In the far East conifers are richly represented; among them occur Pinus densiflora,Cryptomeria japonica, Cephalotaxus, species of Abies, Larix, Thujopsis, Sciadopitys venticillata, Pseudolarix Kaempferi, &c. In the Himalaya occur Cedrus deodara, Taxus, species of Cupressus, Finns excelsa, Abies Webbiana, &c. The continent of Africa is singularly poor in conifers.