Schelling and Hegel thought it was infinite reason; Schopenhauer, unconscious will; Hartmann, unconscious intelligence and will; Lotze, the activity or life of the divine spirit; Fechner, followed by Paulsen, a world of spiritual actualities comprised in the one spiritual actuality, God, in whom we live and move and have our being.
Schopenhauer assigns immortality to the universal will to live; and Feuerbach declares spirit, consciousness eternal, but not any individual subject.
As Ludwig Noire observes, Schopenhauer has no feeling for the problem of the origin of organic beings.
" Every species (according to Schopenhauer) has of its own will, and according to the circumstances under which it would live, determined its form and organization, - yet not as something physical in time, but as something metaphysical out of time."
It is only of recent years that the writings of Schopenhauer and the researches of many distinguished orientalists have awakened some interest in Asiatic philosophy.
Passing over the Italian Leopardi we may notice two leading modern pessimists, Schopenhauer and von Hartmann.
Schopenhauer emphasizes the pessimistic side of Hegel's thought.
This choice of final nothingness differs from that of Schopenhauer in being collective and not individual.
The pessimism of Schopenhauer and Hartmann does not, however, exclude a certain ultimate mysticism, which bears some analogy to that of Buddhism.
Des Weltschmerzes (1876); Huber, Der Pessimismus (1876); von Golther, Der moderne P. (1878); Paulsen, Schopenhauer, Hamlet, Mephistopheles (1900); Kowalewski, Studien zur Psychologie des P. (1904).
He differs from Schopenhauer in making salvation by the "negation of the Will-to-live" depend on a collective social effort and not on individualistic asceticism.
The vast myth of the Ring is related in full several times in each of the three main dramas, with ruthless disregard for the otherwise magnificent dramatic effect of the whole; hosts of original dramatic and ethical ideas, with which Wagner's brain was even more fertile than his voluminous prose works would indicate, assert themselves at all points, only to be thwarted by repeated attempts to allegorize the philosophy of Schopenhauer; all efforts to read a consistent scheme, ethical or philosophical, into the result are doomed to failure; but all this matters little, so long as we have Wagner's unfailing later resources in those higher dramatic verities which present to us emotions and actions, human and divine, as things essentially complex and conflicting, inevitable as natural laws, incalculable as natural phenomena.
Simmel, Schopenhauer und Nietzsche (1907).
There is a touch of Byron, Swinburne and even of Schopenhauer in many of his rubais, which clearly proves that the modern pessimist is by no means a novel creature in the realm of philo- sophic thought and poetical imagination.
Soul is, therefore, a practical reality which Paulsen, with Schopenhauer, regards as known by the act of "will."
Protestantismus (1899); Schopenhauer, Hamlet u.
The doctrine of Schopenhauer and von Hartmann is a monism of cosmic will which submerges the individual no less completely than Hegelianism, though in a different manner.
A monument in the Bockenheim Anlage, dated 1837, preserves the memory of Guiollett, the burgomaster, to whom the town is mainly indebted for the beautiful promenades which occupy the site of the old fortifications; and similar monuments have been reared to Senckenberg (1863), Schopenhauer, Klemens Brentano the poet and Samuel Thomas Sommerring (1755-1830), the anatomist and inventor of an electric telegraph.
The new cemetery (opened in 1828) contains the graves of Arthur Schopenhauer and Feuerbach, of Passavant the biographer of Raphael, Ballenberger the artist, Hessemer the architect, SOmmerring, and Johann Friedrich Bohmer the historian.
A memoir of his life by Johanna Schopenhauer, mother of the philosopher, Arthur Schopenhauer, appeared in 1810, and a complete edition of his works in 1829.
It will escape no one (I) how the idea and method of the Wissenschaftslehre prepare the way for the later Hegelian dialectic, and (2) how completely the whole philosophy of Schopenhauer is contained in the later writings of Fichte.
In 1874 he became professor of philosophy, and translated several works of Herbert Spencer and of Schopenhauer into French.
Hence the stress laid on will as the realizing factor, in opposition to thought, a view through which Schelling connects himself with Schopenhauer and Von Hartmann, and on the ground of which he has been recognized by the latter as the reconciler of idealism and realism.
In making the essence of mind activity and construction, in destroying the separation of theoretical and practical reason, in asserting that mind thinks things as means to ends of the will, he prepared the way for Schopenhauer and other voluntarists.
Meanwhile, by the side of panlogism arose the panthelism of Schopenhauer (1788-1860).
In Die Welt als Wille and Vorstellung Schopenhauer accepted Kant's position that the world as phenomenal is idea (Vorstellung); but he added that the world as noumenal is will (Wille).
But, whereas Leibnitz imputed unconscious perception as well as unconscious appetition to monads, Schopenhauer supposed unconscious will to arise without perception, without feeling, without ideas, and to be the cause of ideas only in us.
The first to modify the pure voluntarism of Schopenhauer was E.
In his tract entitled Schelling's positive Philosophie als Einheit von Hegel and Schopenhauer (1869) he further showed that, in his later philosophy, Schelling had already combined reason and will in the Absolute.
The merit of this fresh noumenal idealism consists in its correction of the one-sidedness of Schopenhauer: intelligence is necessary to will.
The truth of Nature is force; the truth of will is rational desire; the truth of life is neither the optimism of Leibnitz and Hegel, nor the pessimism of Schopenhauer and Hartmann, but the moderatism of Aristotle.
ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER (1788-1860), German philosopher, was born in Danzig on the 22nd of February 1788.
His father, Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer, the youngest of a family to which the mother had brought the germs of mental malady, was a man of strong will and originality, and so proud of the independence of his native town that when Danzig in 1793 surrendered to the Prussians he and his whole establishment withdrew to Hamburg.
In the summer of 1787, a year after the marriage, the elder Schopenhauer, whom commercial experiences had made a cosmopolitan in heart, took his wife on a tour to western Europe.
He had only been there for three months when his father, who had shown 1 Johanna Schopenhauer (1766-1838) was in her day an 'author of some reputation.
See Laura Frost, Johanna Schopenhauer: symptoms of mental alienation, fell or threw himself into the canal.
But he had made up his mind to be not an actor but an onlooker and critic in the battle of life; and when Wieland, whom he met on one of his excursions, suggested doubts as to the wisdom of his choice, Schopenhauer replied, "Life is a ticklish business; I have resolved to spend it in reflecting upon it."
Yet the words Schopenhauer then listened to, often with baffled curiosity, certainly influenced his speculation.
In Berlin Schopenhauer was lonely and unhappy.
In November 1813 Schopenhauer returned to Weimar, and for a few months boarded with his mother.
From that time till her death in 1838 Schopenhauer never saw his mother again.
Still more instructive for Schopenhauer was the imperfect and obscure Latin translation of the Upanishads which in 1801-1802 Anquetil Duperron had published from a Persian version of the Sanskrit original.