In this he agrees with the speculative mystics everywhere, and differentiates himself from the scholastics who followed him.
Gilbert is almost the only logician of the 12th century who is quoted by the greater scholastics of the succeeding age.
The name doctor scholasticus was applied originally to any teacher in such an ecclesiastical gymnasium, but gradually the study of dialectic or logic overshadowed the more elementary disciplines, and the general acceptation of " doctor " came to be one who occupied himself with the teaching of logic. The philosophy of the later Scholastics is more extended in its scope; but to the end of the medieval period philosophy centres in the discussion of the same logical problems which began to agitate the teachers of the 9th and 1 oth centuries.
The belated Scholastics who lingered beyond the last mentioned date served only as marks for the obloquy heaped upon the schools by the men of the new time.
But we may go further and say that, in spite of their initial acceptance of authority, the Scholastics are not the antagonists of reason; on the contrary they fight its battles.
He endeavoured to give a philosophical demonstration not only of the existence of God but also of the Trinity and the Incarnation, which were placed by the later Scholastics among the " mysteries."
They belong indeed (Gerson in particular) to the history of mysticism rather than of Scholasticism, and the same may be said of another cardinal, Nicolaus of Cusa (1401-1464), who is sometimes reckoned among the last of the Scholastics, but who has more affinity with Erigena than with any intervening teacher.
The title " last of the Scholastics " is commonly given to Gabriel Biel, the summarizer of Occam's doctrine.
Like the Arabian logicians, and some of the scholastics, who held that ideas existed in a threefold form - ante res, in rebus and post res - he laid down the principle that the archetypal ideas existed metaphysically in the ultimate unity or intelligence, physically in the world of things, and logically in signs, symbols or notions.
Anselm and the scholastics regarded the atonement as an offering to God of such infinite value as to outweigh men's sins, a view sometimes styled the " Commerical Theory."
He had been born with the hopes of the Renaissance, with its anticipation of a new Augustan age, and had seen this fair promise blighted by the irruption of a new horde of theological polemics, worse than the old scholastics, inasmuch as they were revolutionary instead of conservative.
At the same time we can see from Luther's attitude how the doctrine of the Reformers (unlike that of the Protestant scholastics who came later) admitted considerable freedom, in particular with reference to the extent of the canon, but also to several questions of higher criticism.
Next we must consider the machinery by which the Society is constituted and governed so as to make its spirit a living energy and not a mere abstract Society is distributed into six grades: novices, scholastics, temporal coadjutors (lay brothers), spiritual coadjutors, professed of the three vows, and professed of the four vows.
The Decretum pro Jacobitis, published on the 4th of February 1442, is, like that for the Armenians, of high dogmatic interest, as it summarizes the doctrine of the great medieval scholastics on the points in controversy.
The freedom of his speculation, and the boldness with which he works out his logical or dialectical system of the universe, altogether prevent us from classing him along with the scholastics properly so called.
Then, selecting some of the later and less virile scholastics as victims, they ask how men could be seriously interested in their trivialities.
It, is perhaps unnecessary to point out how small a proportion of the "intellectuals" were scholastics even in the 13th century.