He helped to crush the rising of the peasants under Thomas Munzer in Thuringia in 1525; he was a member of the league of Schmalkalden, and took part in all the movements of the Protestants against Charles V.
The peace of Crepy in September 1544 deprived him of this employment, but he had won a considerable reputation, and when Charles was preparing to attack the league of Schmalkalden, he took pains to win Albert's assistance.
One of his specially noteworthy performances was the settlement of the terms of peace after the defeat of the league of Schmalkalden at Miihlberg in 1547, a settlement in which, to say the least, some particularly sharp practice was exhibited.
He took his part in the theological disputations of the time, at Marburg (1529), the Concordia at Wittenberg (1536), the Convention at Schmalkalden (1537), the discussions at Hagenau and Worms (1540).
Giessen, part of Schmalkalden, Ziegenhain, Nidda and, after a long struggle, Katzenelnbogen were acquired, while in 1432 the abbey of Hersfeld placed itself under the protection of Hesse.
During the 15th century the town suffered greatly from the Hussites, and it was captured by the imperial troops during the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and again in the Thirty Years' War.
In 1536 Hamburg joined the league of Schmalkalden, for which error it had to pay a heavy fine in 1547 when the league had been defeated.
CHRISTIAN KARL AUGUST LUDWIG VON MASSENBACH (1758-1827), Prussian soldier, was born at Schmalkalden on the 16th of April 1758, and educated at Heilbronn and Stuttgart, devoting himself chiefly to mathematics.
Schmalkalden, drawn up by Luther in 1536, Luther's catechisms, and the Formula of Concord which was an attempt to settle doctrinal divisions promulgated in 1580, sum up what is called " the confessional theology of Lutheranism."
In 1530 Constance (whose bishop had been forced to flee in 1527 to Meersburg, on the other side of the lake, and from that time the episcopal residence) joined, with Strassburg, Memmingen and Lindau, the Schmalkalden League.
He assisted the first efforts of the Reformation at Magdeburg (1524), at Goslar (I 531) and at Einbeck (1534); took an active part in the debates at Schmalkalden (1537), where he defended the use of the sacrament by the unbelieving; and (1539) spoke out strongly against the bigamy of the landgrave of Hesse.
His conversion was hailed with great joy by the Protestants, and the league of Schmalkalden declared they were resolved to defend him; but the Reformation in the electorate received checks from the victory of Charles V.
5 Luther's Schmalkalden Articles and the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England should also be mentioned.
The landgrave of Hesse brought the two Reformers together in vain at Marburg in October 1529, and the whole Protestant movement broke into two camps, with the result that the attempt made at Schmalkalden in 1530 to form a comprehensive league of defence against all foes of the Reformation was frustrated.
He took part in the war of the league of Schmalkalden, but in 154.7 he was captured at Miihlberg by the emperor Charles V.
He refused to join the other Protestant princes in the league of Schmalkalden, but made a secret treaty with Charles V.
As a youth he had joined the league of Schmalkalden, but this adhesion, as well as his subsequent declaration to stand by the confession of Augsburg, cannot be regarded as the decision of his maturer years.
When the war broke out between Charles and the league of Schmalkalden in 1546 the elector at first remained neutral; but he afterwards sent some troops to serve under the emperor.
The countships, of Coburg and Schmalkalden passed by the marriage of Jutta, daughter of Hermann I.
The "six towns" were severely punished for their share in the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and about this time the reformed teaching made very rapid progress in Lusatia, the majority of the inhabitants becoming Protestants.
Acceptance of the Confession and Apology was made a condition of membership in the Schmalkalden League.
The Wittenberg Concord (1536) and the Articles of Schmalkalden (1537) reaffirmed them.
Obtained the help of the duke during the war of the league of Schmalkalden by promising him in certain eventualities the succession to the Bohemian throne, and the electoral dignity enjoyed by the count palatine of the Rhine.
In 1532 Bremen joined the league of Schmalkalden, and twice endured a siege by the imperial forces.
To the imperial authority was unlawful and, meeting in December 1530, laid the foundation of the important league of Schmalkalden, among the first members of the confederation being the rulers of Saxony and Hesse and the cities of Bremen and Magdeburg.
The outbreak of the war between the Empire and France in 1536 almost coincided with the enlargement of the league of Schmalkalden, the existence of which was prolonged for ten years.
Thus strengthened the Protestant princes declared against the proposed general council at Mantua, while as a counterpoise to the league of Schmalkalden the imperial envoy, Mathias FIeld (d.
Was again involved in war with France and Turkey, who were helped by Sweden, Denmark and Scotland, the league of Schmalkalden took advantage Successes of his occupations to drive its stubborn foe, Henry, of the duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, from his duchy and Protest..
To save himself from the consequences of his double marriage, which had provided him with powerful enemies, Philip in June 1541 came to terms with the emperor, who thus managed to spike the guns of the league of Schmalkalden, although the strength of this confederation did not fail until after the campaign against Henry of Brunswick.
William was completely crushed; Gelderland was added to the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs, while the league of Schmalkalden impotently watched the proceedings.
In 1537, when the Protestant divines signed the Lutheran Articles of Schmalkalden, Melanchthon appended to his signature the reservation that he would admit of a pope provided he allowed the gospel and did not claim to rule by divine right.
And if in the Augustana the expression of this conviction was suppressed for political reasons, in the Articles of Schmalkalden, drawn up by him, Luther propounded it in the most uncompromising fashion.
Barnim adopted the doctrines of Martin Luther, and joined the league of Schmalkalden, but took no part in the subsequent war.
Augustus supported his brother during the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and in the policy which culminated in the transfer of the Saxon electorate from John Frederick I., the head of the Ernestine branch of the Wettin family, to Maurice.
He was among the first members of the league of Schmalkalden, assented to the religious peace of Nuremberg in 1532, and died at Schweidnitz on the 16th of August 1532.
The schemes he put forward as one of the heads of the league of Schmalkalden, aimed primarily at overthrowing the house of Habsburg; to this end aid was sought from foreigner and native, from Protestant and Catholic alike.
Before the formation of the league of Schmalkalden Philip was very intimate with Zwingli, and up to the time of the reformer's death, in 1531, he hoped that material aid would be forthcoming from his followers.
In 1529 the la,ndgrave signed the "protest" which was presented to the diet at Spires, being thus one of the original "Protestants;" in 1530 he was among the subscribers to the confession of Augsburg; and the formation of the league of Schmalkalden in the same year was largely due to his energy.
In 1542 Philip persuaded the league of Schmalkalden to attack Henry II., duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel, ostensibly in the interests of the Protestant towns of Brunswick and Goslar.
SCHMALKALDEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, situated in a narrow valley at the southwestern slope of the Thuringian forest, 30 m.
It has a Gothic parish church, a palace - Schloss Wilhelmsburgwith an interesting chapel and a collection of antiquities, and possesses a Gothic town hall in which the important Protestant League of Schmalkalden, or Smalkald, was concluded in 1531, and also the house in which the articles of Schmalkalden were drawn up in 1537 by Luther, Melanchthon and other reformers.
Schmalkalden, which was first mentioned in 874, came wholly into the possession of Hesse in 1583, having been a town since 1335.
See Wagner, Geschichte der Stadt and Herrschaft Schmalkalden (Marburg, 1849); and Wilisch, Schmalkalden and seine Umgebungen (Schmalkalden, 1884).
The latter had, about the time of the recognition of Ferdinand as king of the Romans, and partly in consequence of that event, formed at Schmalkalden a league, of which John Frederick, elector of Saxony, and Philip, landgrave of Hesse, were the leaders.
In 1274, or earlier, it became a free imperial town; in 1331 it joined the Swabian league, and in 1531 became a member of the league of Schmalkalden, having just previously accepted the reformed doctrines.
In 1547 the town was taken from its prince, Wolfgang (a cadet of the house of Anhalt), who had joined the league of Schmalkalden, and given by the emperor Charles V., with the rest of the prince's possessions, to the Spanish general and painter, Felipe Ladron y Guevara (1510-1563), from whom it was, however, soon repurchased.