To the former he owes his appreciation of exact investigation and a complete knowledge of the aims of science, to the latter an equal admiration for the great circle of ideas which had been diffused by the teaching of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel.
In this endeavour he forms with Herbart an opposition to the philosophies of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel, which aimed at objective and absolute knowledge, and also to the criticism of Kant, which aimed at determining the validity of all human knowledge.
The idealisms of Fichte and Schelling made contributions to Hegel's thought; Krause and the Roman Catholic Baader represent parallel if minor phases of idealism.
In the earlier writings of Schelling, containing the philosophy of identity, existence is represented as a becoming, or process of evolution.
The side of this process which Schelling worked out most completely is the negative side, that is, nature.
Schelling conceives of the gradual self-evolution of nature in a succession of higher and higher forms as brought about by a limitation of her infinite productivity, showing itself in a series of points of arrest.
Of the followers of Schelling a word or two must be said.
Like Schelling, Hegel conceives the problem of existence as one of becoming.
This writer, by his conception of the world as will which objectifies itself in a series of gradations from the lowest manifestations of matter up to conscious man, gives a slightly new shape to the evolutional view of Schelling, though he deprives this view of its optimistic character by denying any co-operation of intelligence in the world-process.
The later philosophy of Schelling and the philosophy of Franz von Baader, both largely founded upon Boehme, belong rather to theosophy (q.v.) than to mysticism proper.
He was remotely a disciple of Schelling, learnt much from Herbart and Weisse, and decidedly rejected Hegel and the monadism of Lotze.
Von Hartmann thus combines "pantheism" with "panlogism" in a manner adumbrated by Schelling in his "positive philosophy."
Historical and critical - Das religiose Bewusstsein der Menschheit; Geschichte der Metaphysik (2 vols.); Kant's Erkenntnistheorie; Kritische Grundlegung des transcendentalen Realismus; Ober die dialektische Methode; studies of Schelling, Lotze, von Kirchmann; Zur Geschichte des Pessimismus; Neukantianismus, Schopenhauerismus, Hegelianismus; Geschichte der deutschen Asthetik seit Kant; Die Krisis des Christentums in der modernen Theologie; Philosophische Fragen der Gegenwart; Ethische Studien; Moderne Psychologie; Das Christentum des neuen Testaments; Die Weltanschauung der modernen Physik.
Eschenmayer's views are largely identical with those of Schelling, but he differed from him in regard to the knowledge of the absolute.
After a successful course of study at the College Rollin, he proceeded to Munich, where he attended the lectures of Schelling, and took his degree in philosophy in 1836.
Eberhard, Ernst Platner, and to some extent Schelling, whom, however, it would be incorrect to describe as merely an eclectic. In the first place, his speculations were largely original; and in the second place, it is not so much that his views of any time were borrowed from a number of philosophers, as that his thinking was influenced first by one philosopher, then by another.
Cousin, whose views varied considerably at different periods of his life, 'not only adopted freely what pleased him in the doctrines of Pierre Laromiguiere, RoyerCollard and Maine de Biran, of Kant, Schelling and Hegel, and of the ancient philosophies, but expressly maintained that the eclectic is the only method now open to the philosopher, whose function thus resolves itself into critical selection and nothing more.
Schelling, " das ganze System der Naturlehre von dem Gesetze der Schwere bis zu den Bildungstrieben der Organismus als ern organisches Ganze darzustellen," which has ultimately been realized through Darwin, was a general one among the scientific men of the year 1800.
In 1822, he left Erlangen - where he subsequently complained that the contagion of the "greatest philosopher and metaphysician of the century" (Schelling), in a period "rich in words and ideas, but poor in true knowledge and genuine studies," had cost him two precious years of his life - and by the liberality of Louis I., grand-duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, was enabled to go to Paris.
In course of time, however, his ideas approximating to those of Schelling in his later years, he elaborated with I.
Philosophical: Kritik der Schleiermacherschen Glaubenslehre (1836); Psychologie oder Wissenschaft vorn subjektiven Geist (1837; 3rd ed., 1863); Kritische Erlduterungen des Hegelschen Systems (1840); Vorlesungen 'fiber Schelling (1842); System der Wissenschaft (1850); Meine Reform der Hegelschen Philosophie (1852); Wissenschaft der logischen Idee (1858-59), with a supplement (Epilegomena, 1862); Hegels Naturphilosophie and die Bearbeitung derselben durch Vera (1868); Erlduterungen - zu Hegels Encyklopddie der philosophischen Wissenschaften (1871).
Schelling, however, called one of his works after him, Bruno.
Viii.), with its sharp critique of Schelling; from 1810 we have the Thatsachen des Bewusstseyns, published in 1817, of which another treatment is given in lectures of 1813 (Nachgel.
Dr Smith contributed articles on Calvin, Kant, Pantheism, Miracles, Reformed Churches, Schelling and Hegel to the American Cyclopaedia, and contributed to McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia; and was editor of the American Theological Review (1859 sqq.), both in its original form and after it became the American Presbyterian and Theological Review and, later, the Presbyterian Quarterly and Princeton Review.
He was twice married - in 1842 to a daughter of Schelling the philosopher, and in 1858 to a daughter of General von Hartmann.
Besides that, he sent greetings to Monsieur Schelling, Madame Schoss, and his old nurse, and asked them to kiss for him "dear Sonya, whom he loved and thought of just the same as ever."
All the well-known people of that period, from Alexander and Napoleon to Madame de Stael, Photius, Schelling, Fichte, Chateaubriand, and the rest, pass before their stern judgment seat and are acquitted or condemned according to whether they conduced to progress or to reaction.