To the former he owes his appreciation of exact investigation and a complete knowledge of the aims of science, to the latter an equal admiration for the great circle of ideas which had been diffused by the teaching of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel.
The idealisms of Fichte and Schelling made contributions to Hegel's thought; Krause and the Roman Catholic Baader represent parallel if minor phases of idealism.
In the earlier writings of Schelling, containing the philosophy of identity, existence is represented as a becoming, or process of evolution.
The side of this process which Schelling worked out most completely is the negative side, that is, nature.
Schelling conceives of the gradual self-evolution of nature in a succession of higher and higher forms as brought about by a limitation of her infinite productivity, showing itself in a series of points of arrest.
Of the followers of Schelling a word or two must be said.
Like Schelling, Hegel conceives the problem of existence as one of becoming.
The later philosophy of Schelling and the philosophy of Franz von Baader, both largely founded upon Boehme, belong rather to theosophy (q.v.) than to mysticism proper.
He was remotely a disciple of Schelling, learnt much from Herbart and Weisse, and decidedly rejected Hegel and the monadism of Lotze.
Von Hartmann thus combines "pantheism" with "panlogism" in a manner adumbrated by Schelling in his "positive philosophy."
Historical and critical - Das religiose Bewusstsein der Menschheit; Geschichte der Metaphysik (2 vols.); Kant's Erkenntnistheorie; Kritische Grundlegung des transcendentalen Realismus; Ober die dialektische Methode; studies of Schelling, Lotze, von Kirchmann; Zur Geschichte des Pessimismus; Neukantianismus, Schopenhauerismus, Hegelianismus; Geschichte der deutschen Asthetik seit Kant; Die Krisis des Christentums in der modernen Theologie; Philosophische Fragen der Gegenwart; Ethische Studien; Moderne Psychologie; Das Christentum des neuen Testaments; Die Weltanschauung der modernen Physik.
Eschenmayer's views are largely identical with those of Schelling, but he differed from him in regard to the knowledge of the absolute.
After a successful course of study at the College Rollin, he proceeded to Munich, where he attended the lectures of Schelling, and took his degree in philosophy in 1836.
In 1822, he left Erlangen - where he subsequently complained that the contagion of the "greatest philosopher and metaphysician of the century" (Schelling), in a period "rich in words and ideas, but poor in true knowledge and genuine studies," had cost him two precious years of his life - and by the liberality of Louis I., grand-duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, was enabled to go to Paris.
In course of time, however, his ideas approximating to those of Schelling in his later years, he elaborated with I.
Philosophical: Kritik der Schleiermacherschen Glaubenslehre (1836); Psychologie oder Wissenschaft vorn subjektiven Geist (1837; 3rd ed., 1863); Kritische Erlduterungen des Hegelschen Systems (1840); Vorlesungen 'fiber Schelling (1842); System der Wissenschaft (1850); Meine Reform der Hegelschen Philosophie (1852); Wissenschaft der logischen Idee (1858-59), with a supplement (Epilegomena, 1862); Hegels Naturphilosophie and die Bearbeitung derselben durch Vera (1868); Erlduterungen - zu Hegels Encyklopddie der philosophischen Wissenschaften (1871).
Schelling, however, called one of his works after him, Bruno.
Viii.), with its sharp critique of Schelling; from 1810 we have the Thatsachen des Bewusstseyns, published in 1817, of which another treatment is given in lectures of 1813 (Nachgel.
Dr Smith contributed articles on Calvin, Kant, Pantheism, Miracles, Reformed Churches, Schelling and Hegel to the American Cyclopaedia, and contributed to McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia; and was editor of the American Theological Review (1859 sqq.), both in its original form and after it became the American Presbyterian and Theological Review and, later, the Presbyterian Quarterly and Princeton Review.
He was twice married - in 1842 to a daughter of Schelling the philosopher, and in 1858 to a daughter of General von Hartmann.
In 1892 a bronze statue of Semper, by Johannes Schelling, was unveiled on the.
FRIEDRICH WILHELM JOSEPH VON SCHELLING (1775-1854), German philosopher, was born on the 27th of January 1775 at Leonberg, a small town of WÃ¼rttemberg.
With characteristic zeal and impetuosity Schelling had no sooner grasped the leading ideas of Fichte's amended form of the critical philosophy than he put together his impressions of it in his Ãœber die MÃ¶glichkeit einer Form der Philosophie Ã¼berhaupt (1794).
After two years as tutor to two youths of noble family, Schelling was called as extraordinary professor of philosophy to Jena in midsummer 1798.
In Schelling, essentially a self-conscious genius, eager and rash, yet with undeniable power, they hailed a personality of the true Romantic type.
With August Wilhelm Schlegel and his gifted wife Caroline, herself the embodiment of the Romantic spirit, Schelling's relations were of the most intimate kind, and a marriage between Schelling and Caroline's young daughter, Auguste Bohmer, was vaguely contemplated by both.
Auguste's death in 1800 (due partly to Schelling's rash confidence in his medical knowledge) drew Schelling and Caroline together, and Schlegel having removed to Berlin, a divorce was, apparently with his consent, arranged.
On the 2nd of June 1803 Schelling and Caroline were married, and with the marriage Schelling's life at Jena came to an end.
From September 1803 until April 1806 Schelling was professor at the new university of WÃ¼rzburg.
In WÃ¼rzburg Schelling had had many enemies.
In 1809 Caroline - died, and three years later Schelling married one of her closest friends, Pauline Gotter, in whom he found a faithful companion.
Probably it was the overpowering strength and influence of the Hegelian system that constrained Schelling to so long a silence, for it was only in 1834, after the death of Hegel, that, in a preface to a translation by H.
In Berlin particularly, the headquarters of the Hegelians, the desire found expression to obtain officially from Schelling a treatment of the new system which he was understood to have in reserve.
The realization of the desire did not come about till 1841, when the appointment of Schelling as Prussian privy councillor and member of the Berlin Academy, gave him the right, a right he was requested to exercise, to deliver lecturesin the university.
Whatever judgment one may form of the total worth of Schelling as a philosopher, his place in the history of that important movement called generally German philosophy is unmistakable and assured.
Hence it has come about that Schelling remains for the philosophic student but a moment of historical value in the development of thought, and that his wor for the most part ceased now to have more than historic interest.
It is not possible to acquit Schelling of a certain disingenuousness in regard to the Hegelian philosophy; and if we claim for him perfect disinterestedness of view we must accuse him of deficient insight.
But Schelling did not merely borrow, he had genuine philosophic spirit and no small measure of philosophic insight, and under all the differences of exposition which seem to constitute so many differing systems, there is one and the same philosophic effort and spirit.
But what Schelling did want was power to work out his ideas methodically.
In his own view the turning points seem to have been - (1) the transition from Fichte's method to the more objective conception of nature - the advance, in other words, to Naturphilosophie; (2) the definite formulation of that which implicitly, as Schelling claims, was involved in the idea of Naturphilosophie, viz.
From Fichte's position Schelling started.
Animated with this new conception Schelling made his hurried rush to Naturphilosophie, and with the aid of Kant and of fragmentary knowledge of contemporary scientific movements, threw off in quick succession the Ideen, the Weltseele, and the Erster Entwurf.
Schelling had neither the strength of thinking nor 4-he acquired knowledge necessary to hold the balance between the abstract treatment of cosmological notions and the concrete researches of special science.
Yet it would be unjust to ignore the many brilliant and sometimes valuable thoughts that are scattered throughout the writings on Naturphilosophie - thoughts to which Schelling himself is but too frequently untrue.
It was impossible for Schelling, the animating principle of whose thought was ever the reconciliation of differences, not to take and to take speedily the step towards the conception of the uniting basis of which nature and spirit are manifestations, forms, or consequences.
It lay in the very nature of this thought that Spinoza should now offer himself to Schelling as the thinker whose form of presentation came nearest to his new problem.
With all his efforts, Schelling does not succeed in bringing his conceptions of nature and spirit into any vital connexion with the primal identity, the absolute indifference of reason.
Along two distinct lines Schelling is to be found in all his later writings striving to amend the conception, to which he remained true, of absolute reason as the ultimate ground of reality.
It was necessary, in the first place, to give to this absolute a character, to make of it something more than empty sameness; it was necessary, in the second place, to clear up in some way the relation in which the actuality or apparent actuality of nature and spirit ' The briefest and best account in Schelling himself of Naturphilosophic is that contained in the Einleitung zu dem Ersten Entwurf (S.W.
Schelling had already (in the System der ges.
And it is easy to see how from this position Schelling was led on to the further statements that not in the rational conception of God is an explanation of existence to be found, nay, that all rational conception extends but to the form, and touches not the real - that God is to be conceived as act, as will, as something over and above the rational conception of the divine.
Hence the stress laid on will as the realizing factor, in opposition to thought, a view through which Schelling connects himself with Schopenhauer and Von Hartmann, and on the ground of which he has been recognized by the latter as the reconciler of idealism and realism.
Schelling in ihren schwiibischen Jugendjahren (1877).
See further Schelling als Personlichkeit.
Otto Braun (1908), who also wrote Schellings geistige Wandlungen in den Jahren 1800-1810 (1906); Rosenkranz, Schelling (1843); L.
Noack, Schelling and die Philosophie der Romantik (2 vols., 18 59); G.
An entirely different class of ideas, also termed animistic, is the belief in the world soul, held by Plato, Schelling and others.