By the Scheldt, the Eendracht, the Volkerak and the Hollandsch Diep, which separate it from Zealand and South Holland, N.
BERGEN-OP-ZOOM, a town in the province of North Brabant, Holland, situated on both sides of the small river Zoom, near its confluence with the East Scheldt, 382 m.
St Quentin (uniting Scheldt with Sonsme and Cisc) 58
The Gallo-Celtic tribes bore the general appellation of Belgae, and among these the Nervii, inhabiting the district between the Scheldt and the Sambre were at the date of Caesar's invasion, 57 B.C., the most warlike and important.
The strip of coast from the mouth of the Scheldt to that of the Ems remained, however, in the hands of the free Frisians (q.v.), in alliance with whom against the Franks were the Saxons, who, pressing forward from the east, had occupied a portion of the districts known later as Gelderland, Overyssel and Drente.
This middle kingdom formed a long strip stretching across Europe from the North Sea to Naples, and embraced the whole of the later Netherlands with the exception of the portion on the left bank of the Scheldt, which river was made the boundary of West Francia.
The Pont des Trous over the Scheldt, with towers at each end, was built in 1290, and among many other interesting buildings there are some old houses still in occupation which date back to the 13th century.
Gand), the capital of East Flanders, Belgium, at the junction of the Scheldt and the Lys (Ley).
On the Scheldt, near the Place Laurent, is the Geerard-duivelsteen (château of Gerard the Devil), a 13th-century tower formerly belonging to one of the patrician families, now restored and used as the office of the provincial records.
It has direct communication with the sea by a ship-canal, greatly enlarged and deepened since 1895, which connects the Grand Basin, stretching along the north side of the city, with a spacious harbour excavated at Terneuzen on the Scheldt, 212 m.
Two hundred and fifty years of political separation and widely differing experiences had caused the two kindred populations on this and that side of the Scheldt to grow apart in sentiment and tradition.
Zeeland consists of the delta islands formed about the estuaries of the Maas and Scheldt with its two arms, the Honte or Western Scheldt, and the Ooster Scheldt, together with a strip of mainland called ZeelandFlanders.
From 464 to 486 he governed that part of Gaul which lies between the Maas, the Scheldt and the Seine, and was termed "king of the Romans" by the German invaders, Franks, Burgundians and Visigoths, who already occupied the rest of Gaul.
The advanced guard of the Allies under General (Lord) Cadogan promptly crossed the Scheldt and annihilated an outlying body of French troops, and Cadogan established himself on the ground he had won in front of the French centre.
But the Allied main army took a long time to defile over the Scheldt and could form up (on the left of Cadogan's detachment) only slowly and by degrees.
In view of the fact that the First and Third British Armies were faced with strong positions in the Canal du Nord and the Scheldt canal, which it was advisable to carry prior to the general attack on the Hindenburg line behind the latter obstacle, it was decided that these two armies should open their operations a day earlier than the Fourth Army, so as to draw off the German reserves from the front of that army, which had to deliver the main attack and was faced with the most formidable defences.
Of the canal the Germans had as successive defensive positions the Marquion trench line, running from Oisy by Marquion to the main Hindenburg line near Graincourt; the Marcoing line, covering Cambrai at a distance of some two miles from its outskirts; and the Scheldt canal, from the Sensee at Estrun by the western suburbs of the city to Marcoing, Creveceeur and the south.
Up to this line four successive objectives were assigned; from there onwards the second phase of the advance was to carry the assailants to the line of the Scheldt canal and the Sensee.
At the same hour on the 29th the infantry again went forward, the objectives being to complete the capture of the Marcoing line and the seizure of the Scheldt canal bridges W.
Advanced once more with the object of securing the coveted bridges over the Scheldt canal, to be followed later by the 1st Canadian and 11th Div., which were to clear the peninsula between that canal and the Sensee.
Again and again to check the Canadian advance by blows against their left front and left from the direction of the confluence of the Sensee and the Scheldt canal.
Of La Vacquerie) and the Scheldt canal.
Bank of the Scheldt canal and established itself on the line Marcoing-Noyelles; it was found impossible, however, to get over the canal at the moment.
Corps on the left flank reached the suburbs of Cambrai on both banks of the Scheldt canal.
The provocative actions of the French Convention, especially their setting aside of the rights of the Dutch over the estuary of the Scheldt, had brought the two nations to the brink of war, when the execution of Louis XVI.
His information showed that Wellington held the western half of Belgium from the Brussels-Charleroi road to the Scheldt, that his base of operations was Ostend, and that his headquarters were at Brussels.
As middlemen they already possessed a large interest in the spice trade, for the Portuguese, having no direct access to the principal European markets, had made a practice of sending cargo to the Netherlands for distribution by way of the Scheldt and Rhine.
The Senne, a small tributary of the Scheldt, flows through the lower town, but since 1868 it has been covered in, and some of the finest boulevards in the lower town have been constructed over the course of the little river.
The tolls imposed by the Dutch on navigation on the Scheldt strangled Belgian trade, for Antwerp was the only port of the country.
Twenty-one powers and states attended a conference held on the question at Brussels in 1863, and on the 15th of July the treaty freeing the Scheldt was signed.
But his great achievement was the freeing of the Scheldt, and in token of its gratitude the city of Antwerp erected a fine monument to his memory.
He made one fatal mistake - he dreamt of the French frontier being the Rhine and the Scheldt, and that a Spanish princess might bring the Spanish Netherlands as dowry to Louis XIV.
Wellington now pressed for the total evacuation of France, pointing out that popular irritation had grown to such a pitch that, if the occupation were to be prolonged, he must concentrate the army between the Scheldt and the Meuse, as the forces, stretched in a thin line across France, were no longer safe in the event of a popular rising.
The rivers Scheldt and Meuse were opened up in this way to riparian states by a decree of the French Convention of the 16th of November 1792.
Anvers), capital of the above province, an important city on the right bank of the Scheldt, Belgium's -chief centre of commerce and a strong fortified position.
The eight principal basins or docks already existing in 1908 were (I) the Little or Bonaparte dock; (2) the Great dock, also constructed in Napoleon's time; (3) the Kattendijk, built in 1860 and enlarged in 1881; (4) the Wood dock; (5) the Campine dock, used especially for minerals; (6) the Asia dock, which is in direct communication with the Meuse by a canal as well as with the Scheldt; (7) the Lefebvre dock; and (8) the America dock, which was only opened in 1905.
Two new docks, called "intercalary" because they would fit into whatever scheme might be adopted for the rectification of the course of the Scheldt, were still to be constructed, leading out of the Lefebvre dock and covering 70 acres.
In connexion with the projected grande coupure (that is, a cutting through the neck of the loop in the river Scheldt immediately below .Antwerp), the importance of these four docks would be greatly increased because they would then flank the new main channel of the river.
The quays flanking the Scheldt are 32 m.
The more interesting question connected with the left bank is whether it does not provide, as Napoleon thought, the most natural outlet for the expansion of Antwerp. Proposals to connect the two banks by a tunnel under the Scheldt have been made from time to time in a fitful manner, but nothing whatever had been done by 1908 to realize what appears to be a natural and easy project.
The suggested origin of the name Antwerp from Hand-werpen (hand-throwing), because a mythical robber chief indulged in the practice of cutting off his prisoners' hands and throwing them into the Scheldt, appeared to Motley rather farfetched, but it is less reasonable to trace it, as he inclines to do, from an t werf (on the wharf), seeing that the form Andhunerbo existed in the 6th century on the separation of Austrasia and Neustria.
The recognition of the independence of the United Provinces by the treaty of Minster in 1648 carried with it the death-blow to Antwerp's prosperity as a place of trade, for one of its clauses stipulated that the Scheldt should be closed to navigation.
The extensive sea-arms forming the South Holland and Zeeland archipelago are the Hont or West Scheldt, the East Scheldt, the Grevelingen (communicating with Krammer and the Volkerak) and the Haringvliet, which after being joined by the Volkerak is known as the Hollandsch Diep. These inlets were formerly of much greater extent than now, but are gradually closing up owing to the accumulation of mud deposits, and no longer have the same freedom of communication with one another.
The three principal rivers are the Rhine, the Maas (Meuse) and the Scheldt (Schelde), and all three have their origin outside the Rivers.
Country, whilst the Scheldt has its mouth only in Holland, giving its name to the two broad inlets of the sea which bound the Zeeland islands.
In Zeeland they connect the towns of the interior with the sea or the river mouths; for example, the one from Middelburg to Veere and Flushing (1866-1878), from Goes to the East Scheldt, and from Zierikzee also to the East Scheldt.
The South Beveland (1862-1866) canal connects the East and West Scheldt; similarly in South Holland the Voorne canal unites the Haringvliet with the New Maas, which does not allow the passage of large vessels above Brielle; whilst owing to the banks and shallows in front of Hellevoetsluis the New Waterway was cut to Rotterdam.
Oysters and mussels are obtained on the East Scheldt, and anchovies at Bergen-op-Zoom; while salmon, perch and pike are caught in the Maas, the Lek and the New Merwede.
That portion of Flanders which skirts the south bank of the Scheldt thus passed into the possession of the States, and with it the complete control of all the waterways to the sea.
The United Provinces were recognized as free and independent, and Spain dropped all her claims; the uti possidetis basis was adopted in respect to all conquests; the Scheldt was declared entirely closed - a clause which meant the ruin of Antwerp for the profit of Amsterdam; the right to trade in the East and West Indies was granted, and all the conquests made by the Dutch from the Portuguese were ceded to them; the two contracting parties agreed to respect and keep clear of each other's trading grounds; each was to pay in the ports of the other only such tolls as natives paid.
To hold the mouth of the Scheldt and prevent at all costs a revival of Antwerp as a commercial port had been for two centuries a cardinal point of Dutch policy.
It was not till Dumouriez had overrun all the Austrian Netherlands - in 1792,and had thrown open the passage of the Scheldt, lands.
There are no lakes in Belgium, but otherwise it is exceedingly well watered, being traversed by the Meuse for the greater part of its course, as well as by the Scheldt and the Sambre.
Since the wreck of the training-ship " Comte de Smet de Naeyer " in 1906, it has been decided that a stationary training-ship shall be placed in the Scheldt like the " Worcester " on the Thames.
Termor de on the Scheldt and Diest on the Dender are retained as nominally fortified positions, but neither could resist a regular bombardment for more than a few hours, as their casemates are not bomb-proof.
Yet such was the dread of The France and the enfeebled state of the country that Holland retained the privilege, which had been con- Nether- ceded to her during the war, of garrisoning the principal fortresses or Barrier towns, on the French frontier, and her right to close the navigation on the Scheldt was again ratified by a European treaty.
Although the Scheldt was still closed, Charles endeavoured by a large extension of the canal system to facilitate commercial intercourse, he encouraged agriculture, and was successful in restoring the prosperity of the country.
Among these was the closing of the Scheldt to all ships, a clause which was ruinous to the commerce of the Belgic provinces, by cutting them off from their only to the impoverished land by the introduction of new but visited Belgium in person and governor-general,g p showed a great and active interest in its affairs.
The extensive colonial and foreign trade of the Dutch furnished them with markets, while the opening of the navigation of the Scheldt raised Antwerp once more to a place of high commercial importance.
The Scheldt was declared open to the commerce of both countries.
The Dutch, however, still held two forts, which enabled them to command the navigation of the Scheldt, and these they stubbornly refused to yield.
In 1860 the communal octrois or duties on articles of food brought into the towns was abolished; in 1863 the navigation of the Scheldt was made free, and a treaty of commerce established with England.
The Scheldt has a length of 250 m., of which, by a skilful arrangement of locks, not less than 207 m.