See P. Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, i.
Jacobi, Erinnerungen an August Neander (1882); Philipp Schaff, Erinnerungen an Neander (1886); Adolph Harnack, Rede auf August Neander (1889); A.
Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, and P. Schaff, Germany: its Universities and Theology (1857).
C. Bissell in Lange-Schaff (1860); W.
"In the present divided state of Christendom," says Schaff (Ante-Nicene Christianity, ii.
Xi.; Kimmel, Monumenta fidei ecclesiae orientalis (Jena, 1850; critical edition); P. Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, vol.
Sqq.; Schaff, i.
P. Schaff, Creeds of the Evangelical Protestant Churches, p. 197.
Kirche, and Zwingliana, P. Schaff, Creeds of the Evangelical Protestant Churches, p. 211.
Ff., 843 ff.; for canons and abridged translation used by the Reformed Church in America, P. Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom (3rd ed., New York, 1877), 55 o ff.
By Torrey), who wrote in a sympathetic spirit and with special stress upon the religious side of the subject, and has been followed by many disciples, for instance, Hagenbach, Schaff and Herzog; and Baur (Das Christenthum and die christliche Kirche, 1853 ff.), the most brilliant of all, whose many historical works were dominated by the principles of the Hegelian philosophy and evinced both the merits and defects of that school.
A continuation of it, containing selected works of the Nicene and post-Nicene period, was edited by Schaff and others under the title A Select Library of Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers (series 1 and 2; 28 vols., Buffalo and New York, 1886 ff.).
General Treatises: Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church (12 vols., 5th ed., New York, 1889-1892), vol.
Theologie (3rd ed.), on Kirchenregiment, Kirchenrecht, Kirchenordnung, Konsistorien, Episcopalsystem, Gemeinde, Kollegialsystem, Territorialsystem; Schaff, History of the Creeds of Christendom (London; 1877).
See Ehrenfeuchter, Geschichte des Katechismus (187); P. Schaff, History of the Creeds of Christendom (3 vols., 1876-1877); Mitchell, Catechisms of the Second Reformation (1887); C. Achelis, Lehrbuch der prakt.
Nevin (q.v.) became its president, and with Philip Schaff founded the Mercersburg theology, which lost to the Church many who objected to Nevin's (and Schaff's) Romanizing tendencies.
(Frankfurt a M., 1846); The Augsburg Confession: Schaff, The Creeds of the Evangelical Protestant Churches (London, 1877), History of the Creeds of Christendom (London, 1877).
Thomas, La Confession helvetique (Geneva, 1853); P. Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, i.
Trans., 1895); Reinhold Seeberg, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte (1895, 2 vols.); Philip Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom (3 vols., 1881, 3rd ed.).
- " The Creeds of the Greek and Russian Churches," in Schaff, Creeds, vol.
Philip Schaff, Germany; its Universities, Theology and Religion (1857), and the article in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie.
Nevin and Philip Schaff, whose names, and that of the seminary, are associated with the socalled "Mercersburg Theology."
PHILIP SCHAFF (1819-1893), American theologian and church historian, was born in Chur, Switzerland, on the 1st of January 1819.
Nevin (q.v.), by its Neander-like view that Romanism and Protestantism were only stages in the divinely appointed development of the Christian Church, aroused fierce opposition in the Reformed Church and Schaff was characterized as "Puseyistic" and "semi-papistical"; in 1845 he was tried for heresy and found not guilty by the Synod.
He edited (1864-1880) the American translation and revision of Lange's Bibelwerk, the great Schaff-Herzog Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge (1884, 3rd ed.
His SOH, David Schley Schaff (1852-), was professor of church history in Lane Theological Seminary in 1897-1903, and after 1903 in Western Theological Seminary at Allegheny, Pa.
He wrote a Commentary on the Book of Acts (1882) and a Life of Philip Schaff (New York, 1897).
Lichtenberger, History of German Theology in the Nineteenth Century (1889), pp. 212-217; Philip Schaff, Germany; its Universities, Theology and Religion (1857), pp. 300-319.
See P. Schaff, Living Divines (1887); Lichtenberger, Hist.