Nominalism was a doctrine of sceptics and suspected heretics, such as Berengar of Tours and Roscellinus.
His claim to eminence rests on the facts that he developed and formulated the doctrines of the older Sceptics, and that he handed down a full and, on the whole, an impartial account of the members of his school.
See Brochard, Les Sceptiques grecs (1887); Pappenheirn, Lebens- .verhaltnisse des Sextus Empiricus (Berlin, 1875); Jourdain, Sextus Empiricus (Paris, 1858); Patrick, Sextus Empiricus and the Greek Sceptics (1899, with trans.
Dillon, Sceptics of Old Test., 1895); Schiffer, Das Buch Koh.
After an exhortation to the judges of the earth to put away evil counsels and thus avoid death, the author declares that God has made no kingdom of death on the earth, but ungodly men have made a covenant with it: certain sceptics (probably both Gentile and Jewish) holding this life to be brief and without a future, give themselves up to sensuality and oppress the poor and the righteous; but God created man to be immortal (ii.
In the 2nd century the school became closely connected with the philosophical sect of the Sceptics, whose leader, Sextus (200 B.C.), was an empirical physician.
The Sophists and the Sceptics, Plato and Aristotle, the Stoics and the Epicureans took up the question, and from the time of Locke and Kant it has been prominent in modern philosophy.
There were numerous sceptics, however, who did not hesitate to assert that the import of the message so obviously locked in these curious inscriptions must for ever remain an absolute mystery.
The sceptics had declared that the new science of Assyriology was itself a myth: that the investigators, self-deceived, had in reality only invented a language and read into the Assyrian inscriptions something utterly alien to the minds of the Assyrians themselves.
Agnes Fry, 1905); Landsbeck, Bruno, der Martyrer der neuen Weltanschauung (1890); Owen, in Sceptics of the Italian Renaissance (London, 1893); C. H.
By sceptics the word " dogma " is generally used contemptuously, for an opinion grounded not upon evidence but upon assertion; and this attitude is so far justified from the purely empirical standpoint that theological dogmas deal with subjects which, by their very nature, are not susceptible of demonstration by the methods of physical science.
It is men's opinions or unwarranted judgments about things, say the sceptics, which betray them into desire, and painful effort and disappointment.
Universal doubt Ancient was the instrument which the sceptics of antiquity recommended for the attainment of complete peace of mind.
The difference might easily be interpreted either as a sign of sentimental weakness on the part of the moderns or as a proof of the limitation of the ancient sceptics which rendered them more easily satisfied in the absence of truth.
It seems to prove, at all events, that the ancient sceptics were more thoroughly convinced than their modern successors of the reasonableness of their own attitude.
This tone, which fairly represents the attitude of ancient sceptics, is rare among the moderns, at least among those who are professed philosophers.
These sceptics are primarily Apologists.
And, as a matter of fact, it has been seen that many so-called sceptics were rather critics of the effete systems which they found cumbering the ground than actual doubters of the possibility of knowledge in general.
Caird, Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904); Norman MacColl, Greek Sceptics from Pyrrho to Sextus (1869); Haas, De philosophorum scepticorum successionibus (1875).
But, in spite of these materialistic tendencies, he followed Hume in reducing matter and everything knowable to phenomena of consciousness; and, supposing that nothing is knowable beyond phenomena, concluded that we can neither affirm nor deny that anything exists beyond, but ought to take up an attitude which the ancient sceptics called Aphasia, but he dubbed by the new name of Agnosticism.
Zeller, Philosophy of the Stoics, Epicureans and Sceptics (Eng.
But the sceptics cannot be regarded as having proved their point.
Common doctrine, that is to say, common doctrine of a positive sort, they could not have, because, being sceptics, they had nothing which could be called positive doctrine; while there was a period when even their scepticism was in no wise distinctive, because they shared it with all or nearly all their contemporaries.
Orthodox churchmen, Evangelical and Tractarian alike, were alarmed by views on the incarnate nature of Christ that seemed to them to impugn his Divinity, and by concessions to the Higher Criticism in the matter of the inspiration of Holy Scriptures which appeared to them to convert the "impregnable rock," as Gladstone had called it, into a foundation of sand; sceptics, on the other hand, were not greatly impressed by a system of defence which seemed to draw an artificial line beyond which criticism was not to advance.
Reichel, Stoics, Epicureans and Sceptics (1870 and 1880); S.
The controversy as to the selfevidence of perception in which the New Academy effected some sort of conversion of the younger Stoics, and in which the Sceptics opposed both, is one of the really vital issues of the decadence.
Many of the arguments by which the Sceptics enforced their ad vocacy of a suspense of judgment are antiquated in type, but many also are, within the limits of the individualistic theory of knowledge, quite unanswerable.
It is natural, then, that the central contribution of the Sceptics to the knowledge controversy lies in the modes (Tp07rot) in which the relativity of phenomena is made good, that these are elaborated with extreme care, and that they have a modern ring and are full of instruction even to-day.
Neoplatonism had accepted the Aristotelian logic with its sharper definition than anything handed down from Plato, and, except the logic of the Sceptics, there was no longer any rival discipline of the like prestige.
Even in his time there were sceptics who pointed dubiously to the full-grown bones of "widows" and of men among the so-called virgin relics.
Thus the Roman edition contains (of metrical works) exegetical discourses, hymns on the Nativity of Christ, 65 hymns against heretics, 85 on the Faith against sceptics, a discourse against the Jews, 85 funeral hymns, 4 on free-will, 76 exhortations to repentance, 12 hymns on paradise, and 12 on miscellaneous subjects.
But those who, like the positivists, agnostics and sceptics, deny the possibility of metaphysics as a theory of the ultimate nature of things, are still obliged to retain philosophy as a theory of knowledge, in order to justify the asserted limitation or impotence of human reason.