The sceptic would have denied both.
But he was a philosopher as well, and apparently a sceptic. He is said to have rejected the Koran, to have denied the return to God, and to have regarded death as the end of existence.
A pupil of Nessus, or, as some accounts prefer, of Democritus himself, he was a complete sceptic. He accepted the Democritean theory of atoms and void and the plurality of worlds, but held a theory of his own that the stars are formed from day to day by the moisture in the air under the heat of the sun.
Hume is the most illustrious and indeed the typical sceptic of modern times.
Blanco White, " the rationalist A'Kempis," who had dared to appear as " a religious sceptic in God's presence," had found a biographer and interpreter in Martineau's friend and colleague, John Hamilton Thom.
El Motaddid was a poet and a lover of letters, who was also a poisoner, a drinker of wine, a sceptic and treacherous to the utmost degree.
Under such circumstances speculative interest fritters itself and sooner or later the sceptic has his way.
A sceptic in philosophy and a revolutionist in politics, rejoicing in controversy of all kinds, he was admired as a man, as an orator, and as a writer.
Himself regarded by most of his contemporaries as a sceptic, and by some as an atheist, he denounced all who dared to disbelieve in sorcery, and urged the burning of witches and wizards.
In the judgment of the present writer, Xenophanes was neither a philosopher nor a sceptic. He was not a philosopher, for he despaired of knowledge.
He was not a sceptic, if by "sceptic" is meant the misologist whose despair of knowledge is the consequence of disappointed endeavour, for he had never hoped.
It is an interesting fact that of these a few have come over from the Abyssinian; such as hawariyun " apostles," maida " table," munafig " doubter, sceptic," ragun " cursed," mihrab " temple "; the first three of these make their first appearance in suras of the Medina period.
Or still more the dialectical device by which the sceptic claims to escape the riposte that his very argument presumes the validity of this or that principle, viz.
He reiterated this belief in private letters even to his wife; and there seems to be no doubt that, to the day of his death, he was the most determined sceptic as to his fitness for the positions to which he was successively called.
This philosophical sceptic is full of humble joy in salvation, of deep love for the Saviour.
More distinguished sympathizers are Edward Gibbon, who has the deistic spirit, and David Hume, the historian and philosophical sceptic, who has at least the letter of the deistic creed (Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion), and who uses Pascal's appeal to " faith " in a spirit of mockery (Essay on Miracles).
If, however, we abandon intuitional ethics, it is reasonable to argue that the term summum bonum ceases to have any real significance inasmuch as actions are not intrinsically good or bad, while the complete sceptic strives after no systematic ideal.
The traveller who is not a missionary may either have the same prejudices, or he may be a sceptic about revealed religion.
It may, however, be granted that the possibility of lapse throws us open to the objections, ingenuous or disingenuous, of the sceptic; and we must remain exposed to them so long as we deal with our first principles as so many isolated axioms or intuitions.
It may, like the Stoic, assert freedom by holding aloof from the entanglements of real life, or like the sceptic regard the world as a delusion, or finally, as the " unhappy consciousness " (Ungliickliches Bewusstseyn), may be a recurrent falling short of a perfection which it has placed above it in the heavens.
The then king of Seville, Motadhid, one of the small princes who had divided the caliphate of Cordova, was himself a sceptic and poisoner, but he stood in wholesome awe of the power of the x.
But, as complete inactivity would have been synonymous with death, it appears to have been admitted that the sceptic, while retaining his consciousness of the complete uncertainty enveloping every step, might follow custom in the ordinary affairs of life.
PYRRHO OF ELIS (c. 360-270 B.C.), a Greek sceptic philosopher and founder of the school known as Pyrrhonism.
King Henry himself in 1521 had deigned to write an abusive pamphlet against Luther, for which he had been awarded the magnificent title of Fidel Defensor by that cultured sceptic Pope Leo X.
TIMON (c. 320-230), of Phlius, Greek sceptic philosopher and satirical poet, a pupil of Stilpo the Megarian and Pyrrho of Elis.
In the dedication of the Enquiry, he says: "The ingenious author of that treatise upon the principles of Locke - who was no sceptic - hath built a system of scepticism which leaves no ground to believe any one thing rather than its contrary.
The typical and by far the greatest example of the Christian sceptic is Pascal (1623-1662).
Aenesidemus, the sceptic philosopher, and Chersiphron, the architect of the temple of Diana at Ephesus, were natives of Cnossus.
His chief works are a monograph on Aenesidemus the Sceptic (1840); Le Scepticisme: IEnesideme, Pascal, Kant (1845); a translation of Spinoza (1843); Precurseurs et disciples de Descartes (1862); Discours de la philosophie de Leibnitz (1857) - a work which had great influence on the progress of thought in France; Essai de philosophie religieuse (1859); Critique et histoire de la philosophie (1865).
Thus, though, in so far as he asserted his fundamental doctrine without doubt or qualification, he was a dogmatist, in all else he was a sceptic. Again, the Eleatic Parmenides, deriving from the theologian Xenophanes the distinction between E 71'caT77 /, 07 and (W a, conceived that, whilst the One exists and is the object of knowledge, the Multiplicity of things becomes and is the object of opinion; but, when his successor Zeno provided the system with a logic, the consistent application of that logic resolved the fundamental doctrine into the single proposition " One is One," or, more exactly, into the single identity " One One."
Not far from the city was the temple of Men Karou, with; a great medical school; while Laodicea itself produced some famous Sceptic philosophers, and gave origin to the royal family of Polemon and Zenon, whose curious history has been illustrated in recent times (W.
But even were direct evidence of the knowledge of the art of writing in Greece of the early day altogether lacking, none but the hardiest sceptic could doubt, in the light of recent archaeological discoveries elsewhere, that the inhabitants of ancient Hellas of the "Homeric Age" must have shared with their contemporaries the capacity to record their thought in written words.
In general, his philosophy was a reaction against the sceptic or agnostic position of the Middle and New Academy in favour of the dogmatism of Plato.
To put his, absolute right beyond all control he based it upon religion, and to this sceptic disobedience became a heresy.
He has been represented as a determined apologist of intellectual orthodoxy animated by an almost fanatical "hatred of reason," and possessed with a purpose to overthrow the appeal to reason; as a sceptic and pessimist of a far deeper dye than Montaigne, anxious chiefly to show how any positive decision on matters beyond the range of experience is impossible; as a nervous believer clinging to conclusions which his clearer and better sense showed to be indefensible; as an almost ferocious ascetic and paradoxer affecting the credo quia impossibile in intellectual matters and the odi quia amabile in matters moral and sensuous; as a wanderer in the regions of doubt and belief, alternately bringing a vast though vague power of thought and an unequalled power of expression to the expression of ideas incompatible and irreconcilable.
Bayle, the historical sceptic, lectured and published his learned Dictionnaire (1696) at Rotterdam.