The limestone forms fine scarps on the southern side of the lake, capped by beds regarded as the Yoredale series.
The rainfall is very scanty, and running waters are hardly known, excepting among the mountains which form the scarps of the elevated country.
In addition to the Melghat mountain tract which walls it in on the north, Berar is divided into two sections, the Payanghat or lowland country, bounded on the north by the Gawilgarh hills, and on the south by the outer scarps of the Ajanta range, and the Balaghat or upland country above the Ajanta ridge, sloping down southwards beyond the ghats or passes which lead up to it.
Beyond these ranges the country is further diversified by isolated hills rising abruptly from a common level, and presenting from their steep and nearly inaccessible scarps eligible sites for castles and strongholds, whence the mountaineers of Bundelkhand have frequently set at defiance the most powerful of the native states of India.
Half rises in a succession of scarps or steps to an elevation of 2500 ft., to the Great Plains region, which extends westward past the valley of the Pecos river.
One of the scarps or steps is the result of a great fault or displacement of the earth's crust, and is known as the Balcones fault scarp; others are due to erosion and weatherin g of alternate layers of hard and soft rocks lying almost horizontal.
The next deposits, as the scarps are approached, are greensands of "Selbornian" age, succeeded by Cenomanian, and locally by Turonian, sands.
Farther north in Montana, beyond the gorge of the Missouri river, the structure of the Front Range is altogether different; it is here the carved residual of a great mass of moderately bent Palaeozoic strata, overthrust eastward upon the Mesozoic strata of the plains; instead of exposing the oldest rocks along the axis and the youngest rocks low down on the flanks, the younger rocks of the northern range follow its axis, and the oldest rocks outcrop along its eastern flanks, where they override the much younger strata of the plains; the harder strata, instead of lapping on the mountain flanks in great slab-like masses, as in the Bighorns, form out-facing scarps, which retreat into the mountain interior where they are cut down by outfiowing streams.
During the current cycle of erosion, several of the faults, whose scarps had been worn away in the previous cycle, have been brought to light again as topographic features by the removal of the weak strata along one side of the fault line, leaving the harder strata on the other side in relief; such scarps are known as fault-line scarps, in distinction from the original fault scarps.
These rocks are much folded and the shales are locally cleaved into slates, while the sandstones and conglomerates form scarps and ridges.
The southern edge of the county is formed by the scarps and moorlands of the Carboniferous Limestone and Millstone Grit (both of which form also the outlier of Pen-ceryg-calch north of Crickhowell), while the lowest beds of the Coal Measures of the South Wales coalfield are reached in the Tawe and Neath valleys (where the beds are much folded) and near Tredegar and Brynmawr.
The lower basin portion of Utah is separated from the high plateaus by a series of great fault scarps, by which one descends abruptly to a level of but 5000 or 6000 ft.
One of the fault scarps is known as the Hurricane Ledge, and continues as a prominent landmark from a point south of the Grand Canyon in Arizona to the central part of Utah, where it is replaced by other scarps farther east.
All across Ireland, from the Ballyhoura Hills on the Cork border to the southern shore of Belfast Lough, slaty and sandy Silurian beds appear in the axes of the anticlinal folds, surrounded by Old Red Sandstone scarps or Carboniferous Limestone lowlands.
The conglomerates appear at intervals through the limestone covering of central Ireland, and usually weather out as conspicuous scarps or " hog's-backs."
While the limestone has been mainly worn down to a lowland, it forms fine scarps and tablelands in county Sligo and other western regions.