Where was platinum, palladium, scandium, coal or peanuts slacking off?
In 1878 Marignac, having subjected Mosander's erbia, obtained from gadolinite, to a careful examination, announced the presence of a new element, ytterbium; this discovery was confirmed by Nilson, who in the following year discovered another element, scandium, in Marignac's ytterbia.
Scandium possesses great historical interest, for Cleve showed that it was one of the elements predicted by Mendeleeff about ten years previously from considerations based on his periodic classification of the elements (see Element).
These three he called ekaboron, ekaaluminium, and ekasilicon; and his prophecy was completely vindicated within fifteen years by the discovery of gallium in 1871, scandium in 1879, and germanium in 1886.
SCANDIUM [[[symbol]] Sc, atomic weight 44.1 (0=16)1, one of the rare earth metals.
The separation of scandium from wolframite (which contains 0.34-0.16% of rare earths) is given by R.
The salts of scandium are all colourless, the chloride and bromide corresponding in composition to Sc 2 X 6.12H 2 0; the fluoride is anhydrous.
YTTERBIUM (NEO-YTTERBIUM) [[[symbol]], Yb; atomic weight, 172.0 (0 = '6)1, a metallic chemical element belonging to the rare earth group. Mixed with scandium it was discovered by Marignac in gadolinite in 1878 (see Rare Earths).
Dyson has measured some eight hundred lines in the lower chromosphere and identified them with emission spectra of the following elements: hydrogen, helium, carbon with the cyanogen band, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, zinc, strontium, yttrium, zirconium, barium, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, ytterbium, lead, europium, besides a few doubtful identifications; it is a curious fact that the agreement is with the spark spectra of these elements, where the photosphere shows exclusively or more definitely the arc lines, which are generally attributed to a lower temperature.
In the higher chromosphere the following were recognized: helium and parhelium, hydrogen, strontium, calcium, iron, chromium, magnesium, scandium and titanium.