Where was platinum, palladium, scandium, coal or peanuts slacking off?
In 1878 Marignac, having subjected Mosander's erbia, obtained from gadolinite, to a careful examination, announced the presence of a new element, ytterbium; this discovery was confirmed by Nilson, who in the following year discovered another element, scandium, in Marignac's ytterbia.
These three he called ekaboron, ekaaluminium, and ekasilicon; and his prophecy was completely vindicated within fifteen years by the discovery of gallium in 1871, scandium in 1879, and germanium in 1886.
SCANDIUM [[[symbol]] Sc, atomic weight 44.1 (0=16)1, one of the rare earth metals.
The separation of scandium from wolframite (which contains 0.34-0.16% of rare earths) is given by R.
Dyson has measured some eight hundred lines in the lower chromosphere and identified them with emission spectra of the following elements: hydrogen, helium, carbon with the cyanogen band, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, zinc, strontium, yttrium, zirconium, barium, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, ytterbium, lead, europium, besides a few doubtful identifications; it is a curious fact that the agreement is with the spark spectra of these elements, where the photosphere shows exclusively or more definitely the arc lines, which are generally attributed to a lower temperature.
In the higher chromosphere the following were recognized: helium and parhelium, hydrogen, strontium, calcium, iron, chromium, magnesium, scandium and titanium.
The salts of scandium are all colourless, the chloride and bromide corresponding in composition to Sc 2 X 6.12H 2 0; the fluoride is anhydrous.