For if 0, A, B be any three points, and m, n any scalar quantities, we have in vectors m.~+n.~=(m+n)O~, (I)
The space within is filled with radiations corresponding to this temperature, and these attain a certain equilibrium which permits the energy of radiation to be spoken of as a whole, as a scalar quantity, without express reference to the propagation or interference of the waves of which it is composed.
Clifford makes use of a quasi-scalar w, commutative with quaternions, and such that if p, q, &c., are quaternions, when p-I-wq= p'+wq', then necessarily p= p', q = q'.
The plane is of vector magnitude ZVq, its equation is ZSpq=Sr, and its expression is the bi-quaternion nVq+wSr; the point is of scalar magnitude 4Sq, and its position vector is [3, where 1Vf3q=Vr (or what is the same, fi = [Vr+q.
This has a reciprocal Q -1= p-r = qq-1 - wp1 rq1, and a conjugate KQ (such that K[QQ'] = KQ'KQ, K[KQ] = Q) given by KQ = Kq-}-rlKp+wKr; the product QQ' of Q and Q' is app'+nqq'+w(pr'+rq'); the quasi-vector RI - K) Q is Combebiac's linear element and may be regarded as a point on a line; the quasi-scalar (in a different sense from the rest of this article) 2(1+K)Q is Combebiac's scalar (Sp+Sq)+Combebiac's plane.
Thus, in place of his general tri-quaternion we might deal with products of an odd number of point-plane-scalars (of form, uq+wr) which are themselves point-plane-scalars; and products of an even number which are octonions; the quotient of two point-plane-scalars would be an octonion, of two octonions an octonion, of an octonion by a point-plane-scalar or the inverse a point-plane-scalar.
Again a unit point p. may be regarded as by multiplication changing (a) from octonion to point-plane-scalar, (b) from point-plane-scalar to octonion, (c) from plane-scalar to linear element, (d) from linear element to plane-scalar.
Although many pseudo-symmetric twins are transformable into the simpler form, yet, in some cases, a true polymorph results, the change being indicated, as before, by alterations in scalar (as well as vector) properties.
If we put qo= Sq' - Vq', then qo is called the conjugate of q', and the scalar q'qo = qoq' is called the norm of q' and written Nq'.
The fundamental character of energy in material systems here comes into view; if there were any other independent scalar entity, besides mass and energy, that pervaded them with relations of equivalence, we should expect the existence of yet another set of qualities analogous to those connected with temperature.
In the third-order complex the centre locus becomes a finite closed quartic surface, with three (one always real) intersecting nodal axes, every plane section of which is a trinodal quartic. The chief defect of the geometrical properties of these bi-quaternions is that the ordinary algebraic scalar finds no place among them, and in consequence Q:1 is meaningless.
While polysymmetry is solely conditioned by the manner in which the mimetic twin is built up from the single crystals, there being no change in the scalar properties, and the vector properties being calculable from the nature of the twinning, in the case of polymorphism entirely different structures present themselves, both scalar and vector properties being altered; and, in the present state of our knowledge, it is impossible to foretell the characters of a polymorphous modification.
The mathematical importance of this function called the potential is that it is a scalar quantity, and the potential at any point due to any number of point charges ql, q2, q3, &c., distributed in any manner, is the sum of them separately, or qi/xl+q2/x2+q3/x3+&c. =F (q/x) =V (17), where xi, x2, x 3, &c., are the distances of the respective point charges from the point in question at which the total potential is required.
In the language of vector analysis (q.v.) it is the scalar product of the vector representing the force and the displacement.
In the same way, the work dne by a force acting on a rigid body in any infinitely small displacement of the body is the scalar product of the force into the displacement of any point on the line of action.