The magistrates bore the name of scabini (schepenen or echevins), and at their head was the seigneurial official - the schout or baljuw.
It did little more than arrange for the administration of justice by nominated jurats (scabini) under the count's bailli.
The magistrates of the city were still nominated scabini (fixed at thirteen), but their duties and rights were strictly defined and the liberties of the citizens safe-guarded; the city, moreover, received the right to fortify itself and even individuals within it to fortify their houses.
About this time a body of Schoffen (scabini, jurats), fourteen in number, was formed to assist in the control of municipal affairs, and with their appointment the first step was taken towards civic representative government.
The magistrates, the Schout or high bailiff and his assessors, the Schepenen (scabini, echevins), were nominated by the burgrave from the order of knights.
The bishop's bailiff (schout), with his nominated assessors (scabini), continued to exercise jurisdiction, but members of the Raad sat on the bench with him, and an appeal lay from his court to the Raad itself.
At first the bishop ruled through his burgrave, advocate, and nominated jurats (scabini, Scheen).
Simultaneously with its incorporation by Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, who presented the city with its own mint toll and market, there appears a magistracy of six, chosen probably by the Vogt from the Schtifen (scabini, probi homines).
In a short time, however, the latter appears to have been assisted by a council, consisting of 13 consules (burgomasters) and 13 scabini (assessors), who collectively formed the governing and administrative body under the presidency of the bailiff.
In France, apart from the consuls elus or consuls marchands, who are mere consular agents, selected by the government from among the traders of a (scabini), &c., who had power to fine or to expel from the quarter.
It established the usual type of government under a bailiff (schout) and judicial assessors (scabini, or schoppenen), the overlord's supremacy being guarded, and an appeal lying from the court of the scabini, in case of their disagreement, to Utrecht.