His first spiritual instructor was Sayyid Burhan-uddin Husaini of Tirmidh, one of his father's disciples, and, later on, the wandering Stiff Shams-uddin of Tabriz, who soon acquired a most powerful influence over Jalal-uddin.
Before his "manifestation " (zuhur), of which he gives in the Persian Bayan a date corresponding to 23rd May 1844, he was a disciple of Sayyid Kazim of Rasht, the leader of the Shaykhis, a sect of extreme Shiites characterized by the doctrine (called by them Rukn-irabi`, " the fourth support ") that at all times there must exist an intermediary between the twelfth Imam and his faithful followers.
The great saints of Egypt are the imam Ash-Shafii, founder of the persuasion called after him, the sayyid Abmad al-Baidawi, and the sayyid Ibrahim Ed-DesUki, both of whom were founders of orders of dervishes.
Many orders of Dervishes live in Egypt, the following being the most celebrated (1) the Rifhjh, and their sects the ~1lwhnia and Saadia; (2) the Qadiria (KShiria), or howling dervishes; (3) the Ahmedia, or followers of the sayyid Abmad alBaiJawi, and their sects the Beyumia (known by their long hair), Shinnawia, Sharawia and many others: and (4) the Baramia, or followers of the sayyid Ibrhim Ed-Deski.
Mehemet Alis great strength lay in the devotion of the citizens of Cairo, who looked on him as a deliverer from their afflictions; and great numbers armed themselves, advising constantly with Mehemet Ali, having the sayyid Omar and the sheiks at their head, and guarding the town at night.
He was succeeded by what is known as the Sayyid dynasty, which held Delhi and a few miles of surrounding country for about forty years.
The tarbush or turki-topi was introduced into India by Sir Sayyid Ahmad (Plate I.
He was succeeded by the Sayyid dynasty, which held Delhi and a few miles of surrounding territory till 1444, when it gave way to the house of Lodi, during whose rule the capital was removed to Agra.
Moawiya was a typical Arab sayyid (gentleman).