Sayce, "The Karian Language and Inscriptions" (T.S.B.A.
Sayce and A.
Sayce, Proc. Soc. Biblical Archaeol., 1907, pp. 13 sqq.).
ARCHIBALD HENRY SAYCE (1846-), British Orientalist, was born at Shirehampton on the 25th of September 1846, son of the Rev. H.
Sayce, vicar of Caldicot.
Whether the national hieroglyphic system of the Hittites expressed the same Indo-European language as, according to Hrozny, their cuneiform does, we do not know, as further attempts to elucidate it made by Campbell Thompson 11 and Cowley," while in themselves very interesting experiments, do not seem to take us further than previous attempts by Sayce and others.
Mr. Griffith has added to our knowledge of the ancient languages of the world by his interpretation of the Meroitic inscriptions, 47 to which Prof. Sayce has also contributed.48 Returning to the N.
(1921) p. 80, ff.; Sayce and Langdon, ibid., VI.
But there is no evidence for his "cyclic date" of 2517 B.C., on which his system depended, and there is little doubt that the beginning of the historical period of Berossus is to be set, not in 2506 B.C., but in 2232 B.C. The two systems of Sayce,' that of Rogers,' the three systems of Winckler, 5 both those of Delitzsch, 6 and that of Maspero, 7 may be grouped together, for they are based on the same principle.
9 Lehmann-Haupt's first system (1898) resembled those of Oppert, Sayce, Rogers, Winckler, Delitzsch and Maspero in that he accepted the figures of the Kings' List, and did not attempt to emend them.
I See Sayce, Early Israel, pp. 281 ff., and Encyc. Brit., 10th ed., vol.
Sayce and others) as attacked by kings of Bianas (Van), and apparently domiciled on the middle Euphrates N.
Meanwhile Wright, Ward and Sayce had all suggested " Hittite " as a substitute for " Hamathite," because no other N.
In 1876 Sayce pointed out the resemblance between certain Hittite signs and characters in the lately deciphered Cypriote syllabary, and suggested that the comparison might lead to a beginning of decipherment; but the hope has proved vain.
King of the country E."), Sayce distributed phonetic values, corresponding to the syllables of the two proper names, among four of the Hittite characters, reserving two as " ideograms " of " king " and " country " and launched into the field of decipherment.
Sayce and of Professor P. Jensen.
Sayce and P. Jensen alone have enlisted any large body of adherents; and the former, who has worked upon his system for thirty years and published in the Proceedings of the Society for Biblical Archaeology for 1907 a summary of his method and results, has proceeded on the more scientific plan.
While Sayce has said roundly that common sense demands the acceptance of all as the work of the Hittites, who were the dominant caste throughout a loosely-knit empire extending at one time from the Orontes to the Aegean, Messerschmidt has stated with equal dogmatism that the Hittites proper were only one people out of many 1 in N.
Since all the Syrian monuments of the Hittite class, so far known, seem comparatively late (most show such strong Assyrian influence that they must fall after 110o B.C. and probably even considerably later), while the North Cappadocian monuments (as Sayce, Ramsay, Perrot and others saw long ago) are the earlier in style, we are bound to ascribe the origin of the civilization which they represent to the Cappadocian Hatti.
Sayce, The Hittites (" Bypaths of Biblical Knowledge " series, xii., 2nd ed.
Sayce, " Decipherment of the Hittite Inscriptions," Proc. Soc. of Bibl.
They claim to rule the Kasu'or Meroitic Ethiopians; and the fifth inscription records an expedition along the Atbara and the Nile to punish the Nuba and Kasu, and a fragment of a Greek inscription from Meroe was recognized by Sayce as commemorating a king of Axum.
In a word, the Hebrew Genesis shows unequivocal evidence of Babylonian origin, but, in the words of Professor Sayce, it is but "a paraphrase and not a translation."
Professor Sayce, one of the most distinguished of modern Assyriologists, writing as an opponent of the purely destructive "Higher Criticism," demands no more than that the Book of Genesis "shall take rank by the side of the other monuments of the past as the record of events which have actually happened and been handed on by credible men"; that it shall, in short, be admitted to be "a collection of ancient documents which have all the value of contemporaneous testimony," but which being in themselves "wrecks of vast literatures which extended over the Oriental world from a remote epoch," cannot be understood aright "except in the light of the contemporaneous literature of which they form a portion."
Sayce, The Ancient Empires of the East, Herodotus with introductions and appendices (1883; an attempt to prove the unveracity of Herodotus, especially in regard to the extent of his travels, which has found little support amongst more recent English or German writers); R.
P. 553; Sayce, J-Iibbert Lectures, p. 242.
Of these three views, it is only the ' See Smith and Sayce, Chaldaean Genesis, p. 88; Delitzsch, Wo lag das Paradies ?
A The possibility should not, however, be overlooked that the " stars of the months " were determined by their heliacal risings (see Bosanquet and Sayce on Babylonian astronomy, in Monthly Notices Roy.
The definitive decline of the sun's power after the autumnal 1 Sayce, Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, iii.
The doubling of the sign of Pisces still recalls, according to Sayce, 8 the arrangement of the Babylonian calendar, in which a year of 360 days was supplemented once in six years by a thirteenth month, a second Adar.
Sayce has found graffiti concerning him, and prescriptions exist for consulting Besas in dreams. It has been held that Bes was of non-Egyptian origin, African, as Wiedemann, or Arabian or even Babylonian, as W.
In the Aramaic papyri discovered near Assouan (Syene) in= is priest of the gods (Cowley and Sayce, Pap. E.
On examination, the authors of anticritica are generally found to disown, tacitly or openly, the first of these alternatives; for example, Prof. Sayce, who frequently takes the field against the " higher criticism," and denies, without, however, disproving, the validity of the literary analysis of the Hexateuch, nevertheless himself asserts that " no one can study the Pentateuch.
This is significant enough; Prof. Sayce, the most brilliant and distinguished of the " anti-critics," does not really reoccupy the position of the " able and pious men " of the mid-19th century, to whom " even to speak of any portion of the Bible as a history " was " an outrage upon religion " (Stanley, Jewish Church, Preface); these may still have pious, but they have no longer scholarly successors.
Prof. Sayce travels farther back, it is true, but on critical lines: he abandons the Pentateuchal criticism of the 10th century, to reoccupy the critical position of Hobbes, Spinoza and Simon in the 17th century - whether reasonably or not must here be left an open question.
4 So Sayce, Rogers (Hist.
312-348), Khammurabi, the sixth king of the first Babylonian dynasty, was commonly referred to such dates as 2376-2333 B.C. (Sayce) or 2285-2242 B.C. (Johns).
21, is variously explained as meaning "man of El" (Ball), or as a transcription (Sayce) of the Babylonian Mutu-sa-ili (possibly, "man of the goddess").
Assyria was now free, and Ashur-uballit [Assur-yuballidh acc. to Sayce] knew how to make use of his opportunities, and, in the words of his great grandson, "broke up the forces of the widespread Shubari" (AKA, p. 7,1.
The people of Amar are represented on the Egyptian monuments with yellow skin, blue eyes, red eyebrows and beard, whence it has been conjectured that they were akin to the Libyans (Sayce, Expositor, July 1888).
It is most probable, however, that it was the city which was deified (see Sayce, Religion of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia, 1902, pp. 366, 367).
Sayce (Modern Review, 5884, pp. 158-169), cannot easily be explained.
Sayce, The Religion of the Ancient Babylonians (Hibbert Lectures, London, 1887), now superseded by the same author's Religions of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia (Gifford Lectures.
Lynch, Armenia (1901); Sayce, "Cuneiform Inscriptions of Lake Van," in Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, vols.
Sayce, " Serpent Worship in Ancient and Modern Egypt," Contemporary Review (Oct.
Symbols exactly like k, X, and (a), X, are found in the Carian alphabet, and transliterated by Professor Sayce 1 as v (and ii), h and kh respectively.
See Sayce, "Cuneiform Inscriptions of Lake Van," in Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, vols.
The truth is, no doubt, as Prof. Sayce points out, that the book of Daniel was not meant to be strictly historical.