Weissenfels is a place of considerable antiquity, and from 1656 till 1746 it was the capital of the small duchy of Saxe-Weissenfels, a branch of the electoral house of Saxony, founded by Augustus, second son of the elector John George I.
The support of Albert duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, and of Louis II.
Lauenburg, or Saxe-Lauenburg, as it is generally called, became a separate duchy ruled by his son John, and had its own lines of dukes for over 400 years, one of them, Magnus I.
The reigning family, however, became extinct when Duke Julius Francis died in September 1689, and there were at least eight claimants for his duchy, chief among them being John George III., elector of Saxony, and George William, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Celle, the ancestors of both these princes having made treaties of mutual succession with former dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg.
The chief streams are the Werra, which traverses the south and east of the duchy, and various tributaries of the Main and the Saale, so that Saxe-Meiningen belongs to the basins of the three great rivers Weser, Rhine and Elbe.
Saxe-Meiningen is a limited monarchy, its constitution resting on a law of 1829, subsequently modified.
Saxe-Meiningen has one vote in the German federal council (Bundesrat) and sends two members to the Reichstag.
The duchy of Saxe-Meiningen, or more correctly Saxe-Meiningen-Hildburghausen, was founded in 1681 by Bernard, the third son of Ernest the Pious, duke of Saxe-Gotha, and consisted originally of the western part of the present duchy, the district around Meiningen.
In 1825 the extinction of the family ruling Saxe-Gotha made a rearrangement of the Saxon duchies necessary, and SaxeMeiningen benefited greatly by the settlement of 1826, its area being more than doubled by the receipt of 530 sq.
The additions consisted of the duchy of Saxe-Hildburghausen, founded in 1680 by Ernest, the sixth son of Ernest the Pious; the duchy of Saxe-Saalfeld, founded by John Ernest, the seventh son of Ernest the Pious, which had been united with Saxe-Coburg in 1735; and the districts of Themar, Kranichfeld and Kamburg.
Saxe-Meiningen had entered the confederation of the Rhine in 1807, but had joined the allies in 1813 and became a member of the German confederation in 1815.
In 1866, unlike the other Saxon duchies, Saxe-Meiningen declared for Austria in the war with Prussia; at once the land was occupied by Prussian troops, and in September 1866 Duke Bernard abdicated and was succeeded by his son George (b.
One of the most ancient towns in Thuringia, Saalfeld, once the capital of the extinct duchy of Saxe-Saalfeld, is still partly surrounded by old walls and bastions, and contains some interesting medieval buildings, among them being a palace,, built in 1679 on the site of the Benedictine abbey of St Peter, which was destroyed during the Peasants' War.
In 1680 it became the capital of a separate duchy, but in 1699 it was united with Saxe-Coburg, passing to Saxe-Meiningen in 1826.
In 1553 he became physician to the count of Henneberg, Saxe-Meiningen, and in 1558 held the same post with the elector-palatine, Otto Heinrich, being at the same time professor of medicine at Heidelberg.
1876), daughter of Alfred, duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was dissolved in 1901.
By the treaty of the eighteen articles, however, concluded at London on the 29th of June 1831, the kingdom of Belgium was recognized, and Leopold of Saxe-Coburg was elected king.
In 1407 William was succeeded by his nephew Frederick, called the Warlike, who in 1423 received from the emperor Sigismund the electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg.
During this period the mark of Meissen lay on both banks of the Elbe, and stretched from Bohemia to the duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg, embracing an area of about 3000 sq.
The newly acquired territory was named Alfred county in memory of a visit paid to Natal by Prince Alfred (afterwards duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha).
She did not fill up the dignity of palatine, vacant since the 26th of October 1765, and governed Hungary through her son-in-law, Albert of Saxe-Teschen.
After the treaty of Prague, in May 1635, by which the emperor was reconciled with most of the German princes, Richelieu was finally obliged to declare war, and, concluding a treaty of offensive alliance at Compiegne with Oxenstierna, and in October one at St Germain-en-Laye with Bernard of Saxe-Weimar, he proceeded himself against Spain, both in Italy and in the Netherlands.
Having refused an appointment in Paris under the Polignac ministry, he went on a special mission to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg.
For more detailed study consult Saxe Bannister, Humane Policy (1830), and authorities collected in Appendix; A.
ALTENBURG, a town of Germany, capital of the duchy of Saxe-Altenburg, situated near the river Pleisse, 23 m.
In the prosecution of this enterprise Frederick spent large sums of money, for which he received various places in Bohemia and elsewhere in pledge from Sigismund, who further rewarded him in January 1423 with the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg; and Frederick's formal investiture followed at Ofen on the 1st of August 1425.
Frederick's importance as an historical figure arises from his having obtained the electorate of Saxe-Wittenberg for the house of Wettin, and transformed the margraviate of Meissen into the territory which afterwards became the kingdom of Saxony.
By Bavaria, and on the other sides by Saxe Meiningen, which, with part of Prussia, separates it from Gotha.
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha is a limited hereditary monarchy, its constitution resting on a law of 1852, modified in 1874.
Besides the civil list the duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha enjoys a very large private fortune, amassed chiefly by Ernest I., who sold the principality of Lichtenberg, which the congress of Vienna had bestowed upon him in recognition of his services in 1813, to Prussia for a large sum of money.
In 1680, as Saxe-Coburg, it was formed into a separate duchy for Albert, one of the seven sons of Ernest I., duke of Saxe-Gotha (d.
1729), who called himself duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and who left two sons, Christian Ernest and Francis Josiah, who ruled the land together, the principle of primogeniture being introduced by the survivor of the two, Francis Josiah.
In 1640 Saxe-Gotha came into the possession of Ernest the Pious, and after his death in 1675 its duke was his eldest son Frederick (d.
Ernest, duke of Saxe-CoburgSaalfeld, exchanged Saalfeld for Gotha, took the title of duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and became the founder of the present ruling house.
When he died without sons in July 1900, the succession having been renounced by his brother, the duke of Connaught and his issue, Saxe-Coburg passed to Charles Edward, duke of Albany (b.
He took part in the war against the Hussites, but became estranged from Sigismund when in 1423 the king invested Frederick of Wettin, margrave of Meissen, with the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg.
His mother, Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg, was the elder sister of Catherine, the first wife of Gustavus Vasa and the mother of Eric XIV.
Here in 1.793 the Austrians under Frederick of Saxe-Coburg and Clerfayt defeated the French under Dumouriez.
Just outside the town rises the Moritzburg, built in 1564 by the dukes of Saxe-Zeitz, on the site of the bishop's palace; it is now a reformatory and poorhouse.
From 1653 till 1718 Zeitz was the capital of the dukes of Saxe-Zeitz or Sachsen-Zeitz.
Another attempt by the Lorraine family to reconquer their duchy was thus foiled, and at the same time a second imperial army under the duke of Saxe-Eisenach, which had crossed the Rhine by Philipsburg, was shut up in an island of the Rhine and forced to make terms with the French.
A large reinforcement sent by the duke of Lorraine to the assistance of Saxe-Eisenach was completely defeated by Crequi in the battle of Kochersberg near Strassburg (October 7th) and the marshal followed up his successes by the capture of Freiburg on the 14th of November.
Pressure was put by the German powers on Charles Augustus, grand-duke of Saxe-Weimar, in whose dominions Jena university was situated, to reprove and dismiss the offenders.
CHARLES ALBERT [CARLO ALBERTO] (1798-1849), king of Sardinia (Piedmont), son of Prince Charles of Savoy-Carignano and Princess Albertine of Saxe-Courland, was born on the 2nd of October 1798, a few days before the French occupied Piedmont and forced his cousin King Charles Emmanuel to take refuge in Sardinia.
But the fiery Duke Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar took up the command and ordered a fresh advance.
In the first, which was fought on the 5th and 6th of September 1634, the hitherto invincible Swedish army, commanded by Duke Bernhard of Saxe Weimar and Marshal Horn, was defeated with great loss by a somewhat superior army of Imperialists and Spaniards under General Gallas, Horn and 3000 men being made prisoners and 6000 killed or mortally wounded.
WEIMAR, a city of Germany, the capital of the grand-duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
It contains the tombs of the princes of the house of Saxe-Weimar, including those of the elector John Frederick the Magnanimous and his wife, and of Duke Bernhard of Weimar, a hero of the Thirty Years' War.