This insulation generally consists of materials such as charcoal, silicate cotton, granulated cork, small pumice, hair-felt, sawdust, &c., held between layers of wood or brick, and forming a more or less heat-tight box.
Such fire-proof coverings, and also interior partitions, are composed of hollow, hard-burned terra-cotta blocks, of porous (sawdust) terra cotta, or various plastic compositions applied to metallic lath, many of which are patented both as to material and method of application.
At this time, however, the flesh was replaced by a stuffing of sawdust, sand, or other lasting material, introduced with great skill through a few incisions and apertures, so that the natural forms were completely restored.
It is found that the sawdust obtained from soft woods is the best material for use in this process.
The ground was sawdust and the pebbles scattered around were hard knots from trees, worn smooth in course of time.
The use of non-foodstuffs, or cellulosic materials, such as grasses, reeds, straws, peat, waste wood, sawdust, etc., is not yet possible, for, although research work is in progress to discover a process that could be worked on a commercial basis in those regions where such materials exist in sufficient abundance, it has not so far led to any definite results.
The soil of yards and the floors and walls of houses rapidly become contaminated, and the ideal condition would be to have an impermeable flooring covering the whole area, and supplied with suitable layers of sand, sawdust, peat-moss or other absorbent substances which can be changed at frequent intervals.
In this process cellulose (in the form of sawdust) is made into a stiff paste with a mixture of strong caustic potash and soda solution and heated in flat iron pans to 20o-250 C. The somewhat dark-coloured mass is lixiviated with a small amount of warm water in order to remove excess of alkali, the residual alkaline oxalates converted into insoluble calcium oxalate by boiling with milk of lime, the lime salt separated, and decomposed by means of sulphuric acid.
The supernatant liquid is led into settling tanks, where a further amount of "gold is deposited, r and is then filtered through sawdust or sand, the sawdust being afterwards burnt and the gold separated from the ashes and the sand treated in the chloridizing vat.
Special grease is then rubbed in and the skin placed in a machine which softly and continuously beats in the softening mixture, after which it is put into a slowly revolving drum, fitted with wooden paddles, partly filled with various kinds of fine hard sawdust according to the nature of the furs dealt with.
The filling between the girders and floor beams consists of segmental arches of brick, segmental or flat arches of porous (sawdust) terra-cotta, or hard-burned hollow terra- - cotta voussoirs, or various patented forms of con crete floors containing ties or supports of steel or iron.
I is a hydraulic box with water seal; j, a coke-scrubber; k, a filter; 1, a sawdust-scrubber; m, inlet of gas-holder; n, gasholder; o, outlet of same; p, a valve with weighted lever to regulate the admission of steam to the gas-producer; q, the weight which actuates the lever automatically by the rise or fall of the bell of the gas-holder.
The sawdust of the numerous mills is collected for use in the manufacture of paper.
The sawdust adapts it self to the rough shape of the concrete, and deadens the blow to some extent.
Where the skins are heavily dyed it is comparatively easy to see the difference between a natural and a dyed colour, as the underwool and top hair become almost alike and the leather is also dark, whereas in natural skins the base of the underwool is much paler than the top, or of a different colour, and the leather is white unless finished in a pale reddish tone as is sometimes the case when mahogany sawdust is used in the final cleaning.
In England gold and copper blanks are protected from oxidation, and after their passage through the furnace are merely washed in colanders with water and dried with sawdust in a rotating drum.
To prevent this an iron "helmet" containing a lining of - - sawdust is fitted over the head of the pile.