The Apennines (q.v.), as has been already mentioned, here traverse the whole breadth of Italy, cutting off the peninsula properly so termed from the broader mass of Northern Italy by a continuous barrier of considerable breadth, though of far inferior elevation to that of the Alps The Ligurian Apennines may be considered as taking their rise in the neighborhood of Savona, where a pass of very moderate elevation connects them with the Maritime Alps, of which they are in fact only a continuation.
From the neighbourhood of Savona to that of Genoa they do not rise to more than 3000 tO 4000 ft., and are traversed by passes of less than 2000 ft.
The manufacture of steel rails, carried on first at Terni and afterwards at Savona, began in Italy in 1886.
Other cities where the ceramic industries keep their ground are Pesaro, Gubbio, Faenza (whose name long ago became the distinctive term for the finer kind of potters work in France, falence), Savona and Albissola, Turin, Mondovi, Cuneo, Castellamonte, Milan, Brescia, Sassuolo, Imola, Rimini, Perugia, Castelli, &c. In all these the older styles, by which these places became famous in the IthI8th centuries, have been revived.
Besides these international lines the most important are those from Milan to Turin (via Vercelli and via Alessandria), to Genoa via Tortona, to Bologna via Parma and Modena, to V~rona, and the shorter lines to the district of the lakes of Lombardy; from Turin to Genoa via Savona and via Alessandria; from Genoa to Savona and Ventimiglia along the Riviera, and along the south-west coast of Italy, via Sarzana (whence a line runs to Parma) to Pisa (whence lines run to Pistoia and Florence) and Rome; from Verona to Modena, and to Venice via Padua; from Bologna to Padtia, to Rimini (and thence along the north-east coast via Ancona, Castellammare Adriatico and Foggia to Brindisi and Otranto), and to Florence and Rome; from Rome to Ancona, to Castellammare Adriatico and to Naples; from Naples to Foggia, via Metaponto (with a junction for Reggio di Calabria), to Brindisi and to Reggio di Calabria.
Genoa Albenga, Bobbio, Chiavari, Savona-Noli, Tortona, Ventimiglia.
Thereupon the French general, Miollis, who still occupied Rome, caused the pope to be arrested and carried him away northwards into Tuscany, thence to Savona; finally he was taken, at Napoleons orders, to Fontainebleau.
As pope, he concluded a treaty with his rival at Marseilles, by which a general council was to be held at Savona in September, 1408, but King Ladislaus of Naples, who opposed the plan from policy, seized Rome and brought the negotiations to nought.
A secret mission to Genoa enabled him to inspect the pass north of Savona, and the knowledge of the peculiarities of that district certainly helped him in maturing his plan for an invasion of Italy, which he put into execution in 1796.
It came in time to enable him to share in the operations of the French army against the Austrians that led to the battle of Dego, north of Savona (21st of September), a success largely due to his skilful combinations.
Thomas, who reigned until 1222, was a Ghibelline in politics and greatly increased the importance of Savoy, for he was created Imperial Vicar and acquired important extensions of territory in the Bugey, Vaud and Romont to the west of the Alps, and Carignano, Pinerolo, Moncalieri and Vigone to the east; he also exercised sway over Geneva, Albenga, Savona and Saluzzo.
Various educational schemes were proposed, but they were easier to propose than to carry into effect: no one, except Mr Savona, had the ability to urge English as the basis of instruction, and he agitated and was installed as director of education and made a member of the Executive.
Mr Savona led an agitation for a more sincere system of education on English lines.
Fierce opposition ensued, and the pari passu compromise was adopted to which reference is made in the section on Education above; Mr Savona was an able organizer, and began the real emancipation of the Maltese masses from educational ignorance; but he succumbed to agitation before accomplishing substantial results.
Mizzi wanted to undo the educational forms of Mr Savona, to ensure the predominance of the Italian language and to work the council as a caucus.
The line of the marquises of Saluzzo began (1142) with Manfred, son of Boniface, marquis of Savona, and continued till 1548, when the city and territory were seized by the French.
Was brought from his first place of detention, Savona, to Fontainebleau, where he was kept under surveillance in the hope that he would give way in certain matters relating to the Concordat and in other clerical affairs.
He yielded, however, to the instances of the government of Charles VI., and pretending that he wished to have an interview with Gregory XII., with a view to their simultaneous abdication, he advanced to Savona, and then to Porto Venere.
His third wife, Adelaide, niece of Boniface, lord of Savona, gave him two sons, Simon and Roger, of whom the latter succeeded him.
Main lines run also from Turin toVercelli and thence to Novara and Milan (the direct route), to Casale Monferrato, to Alessandria (and thence to Piacenza or Genoa), to Genoa via Asti and Acqui, to Bra and Savona, and branch lines to Lanzo, Torre Pellice, Aosta, Rivoli, Rivarolo, &c., and steam tramways in various directions.
The Cevennes, the Jura, the hills of central Germany, the Carpathians, the Apennines), which ar really independent ranges rather than offshoots of the main chain, the best limits are on the west (strictly speaking south), the Col d'Altare or di Cadibona (1624 ft.), leading from Turin to Savona and Genoa, and on the east the line of the railway over the Semmering Pass (3215 ft.) from Vienna to Marburg in the Mur valley, and on by Laibach to Trieste.
Starting from the Col d'Altare or di Cadibona (west of Savona), the main chain extends first south-west, then north-west to the Col de Tenda, though nowhere rising much beyond the zone of coniferous trees.
(Giuliano della Rovere), pope from the 1st of November 1503 to the 21st of February 1513, was born at Savona in 1443.
Of the four main lines which centre on Genoa - (1) to Novi, which is the junction for Alessandria, where lines diverge to Turin and France via the Mont Cenis, and toNovaraandSwitzerland and France via the Simplon, and for Milan; (2) to Acqui and Piedmont; (3) to Savona, Ventimiglia and the French Riviera, along the coast; (4) to Spezia and Pisa - the first line has to take no less than 78% of the traffic. It has indeed two alternative double lines for the passage over the Apennines, but one of them has a maximum gradient of 1: 18 and a tunnel over 2 m.
SAVONA, a seaport and episcopal see of Liguria, Italy, in the province of Genoa, 27 m.
Deep. Savona is one of the chief seats of the Italian iron industry, having iron-works and foundries, shipbuilding, railway workshops, engineering shops, brass foundry, tinplate works, sulphur mills and glass-works.
There is a railway through the mountains from Savona to Turin (91 m.
Columbus, whose ancestors came from Savona, gave the name of the city to one of the first islands he discovered in the Antilles.
But he was dissatisfied with his treatment at the hands of Francis, who was mean about payment, and he resented the king's behaviour in connexion with Savona, which he delayed to hand back to the Genoese as he had promised; consequently on the expiry of Doria's contract we find him in the service of the emperor Charles V.
He died without heirs on his return from the 8th crusade, in Italy, probably at Savona, on the 21st of August 1271.
(Francesco della Rovere), pope from the 9th of August 1471 to the 12th of August 5484, was born of a poor family near Savona in 1414.
Of Savona on the high road to Turin.'
The range is crossed by several railways - the line from Savona to Turin (with a branch at Ceva for Acqui), that from Genoa to Ovada and Acqui, the main lines from Genoa to Novi, the junction for Turin and Milan (both of which 2 pass under the Monte dei Giovi, the ancient Mons Ioventius, by which the ancient Via Postumia ran from Genua to Dertona), and that from Spezia to Parma under the pass of La Cisa.
The pope was deported to Savona beneath the eyes of indifferent Europe, and his domains were incorporated in the Empire; the senates decision on the 17th of February 1810 created the title of king of Rome, and made Rome the capital of Italy.