The court was hastily removed across the Jordan to Mahanaim, where Saul's son Ishbaal (Ish-bosheth), thanks to his general Abner, recovered some of the lost prestige.
It is precisely in Saul's time that the account of the Judaean monarchy, or perhaps of the monarchy from the Judaean standpoint, now begins.
Xviii., Saul's jealousy leaped at once to the conclusion that David's ambition would not stop short of the kingship. Such a suspicion would be intelligible if we could suppose that the king had heard something of the significant act of Samuel, which now stands at the head of the history of David in witness of that divine election and unction with the spirit of Yahweh on which his whole career hung (xvi.
And xii.3 The shorter text, represented by the Septuagint, gives an account of Saul's jealousy which is psychologically more intelligible.
Saul's daughter Michal loved him; and her father, whose jealousy continued to increase, resolved to put the young captain on a perilous enterprise, promising him the hand of Michal as a reward of success, but secretly hoping that he would perish in the attempt.
At this point it is necessary to look back on the proposed marriage of David with Saul's eldest daughter Merab (xviii.
25), so that Saul's insane fears were constantly exasperated by personal contact with him.
The circumstances of the final outburst of Saul's hatred, which drove David into exile, are not easily disentangled.
1-6 (to " Philistine "), the first and last clauses of 8, Io-I I, the reason given for Saul's fear in 12, 17-19, the second half of 21.
Its aim is to paint Saul's character as black as possible.
The Philistines took possession of the fertile lowlands of Jezreel and the Jordan, and the shattered forces of Israel were slowly rallied by Abner in the remote city of Mahanaim in Gilead, under the nominal sovereignty of Saul's son Ishbaal.
The embassy threw out a hint, - their lord was dead and David himself had been anointed king over Judah; but the relation between Jabesh-Gilead and Saul had been a close one, and it was not to be expected that its eyes would be turned upon the king of Judah when Saul's son was installed at the not distant Mahanaim.
The interest of the narratives is now directed away from the Philistines to the decaying fortunes of Saul's house.
(See Abner and Saar,.) Abner had taken Saul's son Ishbaal and his authority was gradually consolidated in the north..
12-16) is not free from difficulties, but it is intelligible that David should desire to ally himself as closely as possible with Saul's family (cf.
The later views of the history of this period are represented in the book of Chronicles, where immediately after Saul's death David is anointed at Hebron king over all Israel (1 Chron.
1-22), and of the host which came to him at Hebron to turn over to him Saul's kingdom (xii.
There were men of stronger build than the weak Ishbaal and the crippled son of Jonathan, the survivors of Saul's house, and it is only to be expected that David's first care must have been to cement the union of the north and south.
(See Rehoboam.) On the other hand, when Sheba, probably one of Saul's clan, headed a rising and was promptly pursued by Joab to Abel-beth-maacah on the west of Dan, honour was satisfied by the death of the rebel, and no further steps were taken (xx.).
This same magnanimity towards the survivors of Saul's house has left its mark upon many of the narratives, and helps to a truer understanding of the stories of his early life.
Thus it was quite in keeping with the romantic attachment between David and Saul's son Jonathan that when he became king of Israel he took Jonathan's son Meribbaal under his care (ix.).
7 The deed was not merely generous, it was politic to have Saul's grandson under his eyes.
The Gibeonites demanded the latter, and five sons of Merab (the text by a mistake reads Michal) and two sons of Saul's concubine were sacrificed.
(from another source), where Saul's son recovers Israelite territory, but is supported by ix., where Mephibosheth is found at Lo-debar.
That the Israelites even applied the title of Baal to Yahweh himself is proved by the occurrence of such names as Jerubbaal (Gideon), Eshbaal (one of Saul's sons) and Beeliada (a son of David, 1 Chron.
But it is not certain that the two belong to the same cycle of tradition; Kirjath-jearim and Baal-Judah are identified only in later writings, and the behaviour of Saul's daughter (2 Sam.
The hostility of the "sons of Zeruiah" towards the tribe of Benjamin is characteristically contrasted with David's own generosity towards Saul's fallen house.
In the stories of Samson and Samuel, the Philistines are located in the maritime plain, whereas, in the oldest traceable account of Saul's rise (apparently shortly before 1000 B.C.) they hold Israel (I Sam.
Sq.); on the other, Saul's position as king necessitates the presumption that his sway extended over Judah and Israel, including those cities which otherwise appear to have been in the hands of aliens (I Sam.
More than this hardly lies in the expression "a divine spirit" (a'r5K min), which is used not only of the prophetic afflatus but of the evil frenzy that afflicted Saul's later days.
The only one of the priests to escape from Saul's massacre, he fled to David at Keilah, taking with him the ephod (I Sam.
He is only referred to incidentally in Saul's history (I Sam.
5), and is not mentioned in the account of the disastrous battle of Gilboa when Saul's power was crushed.
At length Ishbaal lost the main prop of his tottering cause by remonstrating with Abner for marrying Rizpah, one of Saul's concubines, an alliance which, according to Oriental notions, implied pretensions to the throne (cp. 2 Sam.
The rise of the kingdom of Israel under Saul is treated at length, but more prominence is given to the influence of the prophet Samuel; and not only is Saul's history written from a didactic and prophetical standpoint (cf.
3 That the Edomites preserved this tradition of Saul's sovereignty and (from their standpoint) enrolled him among their kings (Gen.
The account of the ferocious slaughter of the priests of Nob at Saul's command by Doeg the Edomite is a secondary tradition and probably of late origin (1 Sam.