The decrease is most marked as saturation approaches.
The processes of soap manufacture may be classified (a) according to the temperatures employed into (I) cold processes and (2) boiling processes, or (b) according to the nature of the starting material - acid or oil and fat - and the relative amount of alkali, into (1) direct saturation of the fatty acid with alkali, (2) treating the fat with a definite amount of alkali with no removal of unused lye, (3) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali, also with no separation of unused lye, (4) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali with separation of waste lye.
According to this theory, an element in a compound had a definite saturation capacity, an idea very old in itself, being framed in the law of multiple proportions.
These saturation capacities were assidu- valency.
The annexed table gives the saturation values of I for the particular metals examined by Ewing and Low: Wrought iron .
It is shown in the paper that the greatest possible force which the isthmus method can apply at a point in the axis of the bobbin is F = 11, 137 I, log i n b/a, I, being the saturation value of the magnet pores, a the radius of the neck on which the cones converge, and b the radius of the bases of the cones.
Saturation Value of I.
According to Joule's observations, the length of a bar of iron or soft steel was increased by magnetization, the elongation being proportional up to a certain point to the square of the intensity of magnetization; but when the " saturation point " was approached the elongation was less than this law would require, and a stage was finally reached at which further increase of the magnetizing force produced little or no effect upon the length.
The metal, having first been uniformly tempered glasshard, should be annealed in steam at loo° C. for twenty or thirty hours; it should then be magnetized to saturation, and finally " aged " by a second immersion in steam for about five hours.
The magnetization curve was found to be of the same general form as that of a paramagnetic metal, and gave indications that with a sufficient force magnetic saturation would probably be attained.
This corresponds to the second stage of magnetization, in which the susceptibility is large and permanent magnetization is set up. A still stronger magnetizing force has little effect except in causing the direction of the needles to approach still more nearly to that of the field; if the force were infinite, every member of the group ‘ would have exactly the same direction and the greatest possible resultant moment would be reached; this illustrates " magnetic saturation " - the condition approached in the third stage of magnetization.
Unable to accept Berzelius's doctrine of the unalterability of organic radicals, he also gave a new interpretation to the meaning of copulae under the influence of his fellow-worker Edward Frankland's conception of definite atomic saturation-capacities, and thus contributed in an important degree to the subsequent establishment of the structure theory.
The heat evolved in this process may be represented by s"(o' - o"), where s" is the specific heat of the substance in the second state at saturation pressure.
To find the border curve of equilibrium between the two states, giving the saturation pressure as a function of the temperature, we have merely to equate the values of G and G".
4282 t +0 0074527 t20.0000-5494 t3 Cl(o 2149 - o o07117 / 2 +0.0000931 13) In the case of ocean water with a salinity of 35 per mille, this gives for saturation with atmospheric gases in cc. per litre: The reduction of the absorption of gas by rise of temperature is thus seen to be considerable.
Potassium at temperatures from 200 to 400°C. occludes hydrogen gas, the highest degree of saturation corresponding approximately to the formula K 2 H.
If the solution of a solid more soluble when hot be cooled below the saturation point, the whole of the solid sometimes remains in solution.
If a crystal of the solid be added, the condition of supersaturation is destroyed, and the ordinary equilibrium of saturation is reached by precipitation of solid from solution.
If, however, a solution be cooled slowly past its saturation point with no solid present, crystallization does not occur till some lower temperature is reached.
Between the saturation point and this lower temperature, the liquid holds in solution more of the solute than corresponds with equilibrium, and is said to be supersaturated.
A familiar example is to be found in solutions of sodium sulphate, which may be cooled much below their saturation point and kept in the liquid state till a crystal of the hydrate Na 2 SO 4 IoH 2 O is dropped in, when solidification occurs with a large evolution of latent heat.
If a solution of a salt be stirred as it cools in an open vessel, a thin shower of crystals appears at or about the saturation temperature.
When the temperature has fallen about 10° C. below this point of saturation, a dense shower of new crystals appear suddenly.
The reason for its birth, of course, is that the solubility of carbon in austenite progressively decreases as the temperature falls, from about 2.2% at 1130° (a), to 0.90% at 690° (Ar 1), as shown by the line aS, with the consequence that the austenite keeps rejecting in the form of this pro-eutectoid cementite all carbon in excess of its saturation-point for the existing temperature.
As desulphurizing seems to need the direct and energetic action of carbon on the molten iron itself, and as molten iron absorbs carbon most greedily, it is hard to see how the blast-furnace is to desulphurize without carburizing almost to saturation, i.e.
In the former case it is often difficult to obtain the brine at a density even approaching saturation, and chambers and galleries are sometimes excavated within the saliferous beds to increase the dissolving surface, and water let down fresh is pumped up as brine.
Perceiving a molecular isonomy between them and the inorganic compounds of the metals from which they may be formed, he saw their true molecular type in the oxygen, sulphur or chlorine compounds of those metals, from which he held them to be derived by the substitution of an organic group for the oxygen, sulphur, &c. In this way they enabled him to overthrow the theory of conjugate compounds, and they further led him in 1852 to publish the conception that the atoms of each elementary substance have a definite saturation capacity, so that they can only combine with a certain limited number of the atoms of other elements.
The Most Important Cases Are, The Specific Heats (I) At Constant Volume; (2) At Constant Pressure; (3) At Saturation Pressure In The Case Of A Liquid Or Vapour.
(9) The pressure under which the liquid is heated makes very little difference to the quantity h, but, in order to make the statement definite, it is desirable to add that the liquid should be heated under a constant pressure equal to the final saturation-pressure of the vapour.
The method commonly adopted in measuring the latent heat of a vapour is to condense the vapour at saturation-pressure in a calorimeter.
Another method, which is suitable for volatile liquids or low temperatures, is to allow the liquid to evaporate in a calorimeter, and to measure the quantity of heat required for the evaporation of the liquid at the temperature of the calorimeter and at saturation-pressure.
Adopting this definition, without restriction to the case of an ideal vapour or to saturation-pressure, the rate of variation of the total heat with temperature (dH/dO) at constant pressure is equal to S under all conditions, whether S is constant, or varies both with p and 0.
The values of the saturation-pressure have been ver y accurately determined for the majority of stable substances, and a large number of empirical formulae have been proposed to represent the relation between pressure and temperature.
In the following list, which contains a few typical examples, the different formulae are arranged to give the logarithm of the saturation-pressure p in terms of the absolute temperature 0.
(21) in which v and w are the volumes of unit mass of the vapour and liquid respectively at the saturation-point (Thermodynamics, § 4).
This relation cannot be directly integrated, so as to obtain the equation for the saturation-pressure, unless L and v - w are known as functions of 0.
It is found by these methods that the behaviour of superheated vapours closely resembles that of noncondensible gases, and it is a fair inference that similar behaviour would be observed up to the saturation-point if surface condensation could be avoided.
By assuming suitable forms of the characteristic equation to represent the variations of the specific volume within certain limits of pressure and temperature, we may therefore with propriety deduce equations to represent the saturation-pressure, which will certainly be thermodynamically consistent, and will probably give correct numerical results within the assigned limits.
The justification of this assumption lies in the fact that the values of c found in this manner, when substituted in equation (25) for the saturation-pressure, give correct results for p within the probable limits of error of Regnault's experiments.
The values of the specific heat in the next column are calculated for a constant pressure equal to that of saturation by formula (16) to illustrate the increase of the specific heat with rise of pressure.
The values of the saturation-pressure given in the last column are calculated by formula (25), which agrees with Regnault's observations better than his own empirical formulae.
In all the literary work which has been mentioned, the originality and freshness of the French genius are no less conspicuous than its saturation with the new learning and with Italian studies.
Aphraates impresses a reader favourably by his moral earnestness, his guilelessness, his moderation in controversy, the simplicity of his style and language, his saturation with the ideas and words of Scripture.
In England the cluster-pine has been largely planted on sandy districts near the sea, and has become naturalized in Purbeck and other wild tracts in the southern counties, but the summer heat is too small to permit of its resinous products acquiring any value; the soft coarse wood, though perishable in the natural state, has been used for railway sleepers after saturation with creosote or preservative solutions.
The positions of springs are determined by permeable depressions in the surface of the ground below the general level of saturation, and frequently also by the holding up of that level locally by comparatively impermeable strata, sometimes combined with a fault or a synclinal fold of the strata, forming the more permeable portion into an underground basin or channel lying within comparatively impermeable boundaries.
It would conceivably take but a small fraction of the period that has in most cases elapsed since such upheavals occurred for the salt water to be thus displaced by fresh water, and for the condition to be attained as regards saturation with fresh water, in which with few exceptions we now find the porous portions of the earth's crust wherever the rainfall exceeds the evaporation.
The mean sea-level is shown by the horizontal line aa, dotted where it passes through the land, and the natural mean level of saturation bb, above the sea-level, by a curved dot and dash line.
For small supplies such a well may be perfectly successful; but however small the quantity drawn, it must obviously have the effect of diminishing the volume of fresh water, which contributes to the maintenance of the level of saturation above the sea-level; and with further pumping the fresh water would be so far drawn upon that the mean level of saturation would sink, first to a curved figure - a cone of depression - such as that represented by the new level of saturation dd, and later to the figure represented by the lines ee, in which the level of saturation has everywhere been drawn below the mean sea-level.
There is no serious difficulty in so constructing walls of this kind as to be practically water-tight while they remain unbroken; but owing to the settlement of the earthen embankments and the changing level of saturation they are undoubtedly subject to irregular stresses which cannot be calculated, and under which, speaking generally, plastic materials are much safer.
The thorough saturation of the narrow space with aqueous vapour, and the presence of drain water in the cutting, were probably their chief preservatives - assisted by the high even temperature always found in the deeper headings of coal mines, and by the enormous compression of the confined air.