The most satisfactory growth is maintained when the amount of water present is not more than 40 to 60% of what would saturate it.
It is found, however, that the same element has not always the same atomic refraction, the difference being due to the nature of the elements which saturate its valencies.
To him belongs the merit of carrying out some of the earliest determinations of the quantities by weight in which acids saturate bases and bases acids, and of arriving at the conception that those amounts of different bases which can saturate the same quantity of a particular acid are equivalent to each other.
He was thus led to conclude that chemistry is a branch of applied mathematics and to endeavour to trace a law according to which the quantities of different bases required to saturate a given acid formed an arithmetical, and the quantities of acids saturating a given base a geometrical, progression.
When combined with potash or soda it is used to saturate flypapers, and strong solutions can be obtained by soaking these in water; this fact has also been used with criminal intent.
All such variations are permissible provided that the quantity of silica and alumina is sufficient to saturate the whole of the lime and to leave none of it in a "free" condition, likely to cause the cement to expand after setting.
We irrigate chiefly in the colder and wetter half of the year, and we " saturate " with water the soil in which are growing such plants as are perfectly content with earth not containing more than one-fifth of its weight of moisture.