To meet the invader the great king had in Asia Minor an army slightly larger, it would seem, than Alexander's, gathered under the satraps of the western provinces at Zeleia.
Mentor after the conquest of Egypt rose high in the favour of the king, and Memnon, who had taken refuge with Artabazus at the Macedonian court, became a zealous adherent of the Persian king; he assisted Mentor in subduing the rebellious satraps and dynasts in Asia Minor, and succeeded him as general of the Persian troops.
Most notable of all perhaps was the shepherd Athronges, who assumed the pomp of royalty and employed his four brothers as captains and satraps in the war which he waged upon Romans and king's men alike - not even Jews escaped him unless they brought him contributions.
The governors appointed by Alexander were, in the west of the empire, exclusively Macedonians; in the east, members of the Old Persian nobility were still among the satraps at Alexander's death, Atropates in Media, Phrataphernes in Parthia and Hyrcania, 1 For the events which brought this empire into being see Alexander The Great.
When Antipater died, in 319, a second war broke out, the wrecks of the party of Perdiccas, led by Eumenes, combining with Polyperchon, the new regent, and later on (318) with the eastern satraps who were in arms against Pithon, the satrap of Media.
The great provinces were divided into many smaller districts, the governors of which are also called satraps and hyparchs.
When the empire decayed, the satraps often enjoyed practical independence, especially as it became customary to appoint them also as generals in chief of their army district, contrary to the original rule.
ARIOBARZANES, the name of three ancient kings or satraps of Pontus, and of three kings of Cappadocia and a Persian satrap.
Six hundred years later, the local satraps are represented as having received instructions to build regular highways, and in the 3rd century the massing of troops for an over-sea expedition invested roads with new value.
Subsequently Greek mercenaries became indispensable not only to the king but also to the satraps, who thereby gained the means for attempting successful rebellions, into which they were provoked by the weakness of the king, and by the continuous intrigues between the Persian magnates.
Shortly after the edict by which the king had proclaimed his alliance with Thebes, and the conditions of the general peace which he was going to impose upon Greece, his weakness became evident, for since;56 all the satraps of Asia Minor (Datames, Ariobarzanes, Mausolus, Orontes, Artabazus) were in rebellion again, in close alliance with Athens, Sparta and Egypt.
In 356 he ordered all the satraps to dismiss their mercenaries.
The cardinals, said Bernard, were satraps who put pomp before the truth.
The satraps and other high officials would naturally be of Persian extraction; but local affairs were probably managed in the old way, and there was no important shift of population.
With the aid of Nectanebus of Egypt, who had grievances of his own to avenge, the Sidonians carried the rest of Phoenicia with them and drove the satraps of Syria and Cilicia out of the country.
From the time of Darius the Persian monarchs issued a gold coinage, and reserved to themselves the right of doing so; but they allowed their satraps and vassal states to coin silver and copper money at discretion.
10o) of the Scythic tribes known as the Sakas, Pahlavas and Yavanas, which led to the establishment of the power of the Kshaharata satraps in western India.
Euboea, Lesbos, Chios, Erythrae led the way in negotiation and revolt, and simultaneously the court of Susa instructed the satraps Pharnabazus and Tissaphernes to renew the collection of tribute from the Greek cities of Asia Minor.
The satraps likewise made overtures to Sparta.
These Carian princes ruled as satraps for the Great King, but they modelled themselves upon the pattern of the Greek tyrant.
They were hated by the Hindus as barbarians who disregarded the caste system and despised the holy law, and for centuries an intermittent struggle continued between the satraps and the Andhras, with varying fortune.
236, the Andhra dynasty, after an existence of some 460 years, came to an end, under circumstances of which no record remains, and their place in western India was taken by the Kshaharata satraps, until the last of them was overthrown by Chandragupta Vikramaditya at the close of the 4th century.
They are mentioned by Herodotus among the races conquered by Croesus, and they sent an important contingent to the army of Xerxes in 480 B.C. Xenophon speaks of them as being governed by a prince of their own, without any reference to the neighbouring satraps, a freedom due, perhaps, to the nature of the country, with its lofty mountain ranges and difficult passes.
They composed, moreover, the Persian council, and vice-regal household of the Satraps, exactly as the Persians of the home-country composed that of the king.
Sayce and Cowley, Araman Papyri discovered at Assuan I906), and the coins minted by the satraps and generals usually bear an Aramaic inscription.
The heads of the great military centres of the empire and the commandants of the royal fortresses are outside his jurisdiction: yet the satraps are entitled to a body of troops of their own, a privilege which they used to the full, especially in later periods.
The satraps, also, in addition to money payments, levied contributions for theit table, at which the officials ate (Nehem.
The coining of gold was the exclusive prerogative of the king; silver could be coined by the satraps, generals, independent communities and dynasts.
Thus the satraps aspired to independence, not merely owing to unjust treatment, but also to avarice or favorable conditions.
These were facilitated by the customquite contrary to the original imperial organizationwhich entrusted the provincial military commands to the satraps, who began to receive great masses of Greek mercenaries into their service.
After that, revolts of the satraps in Asia Minor and Syria were of everyday occurrence, and the task of suppressing them wasP complicated by the foreign wars which the empire had to sustain against Greece and Egypt.
To with the order his satraps Tissaphernes and Pharriabazus, Greets, in Asia Minor, to collect the tribute overdue from Peace Of the Greek cities.
And his satraps supported the Greek towns in ThracePerinthus and Byzantiumagainst Macedonian aggression; in 338 h~ concluded an alliance with Demosthenes.
The Persian wives were practically all discarded and the Persian satraps removedat least from all important provinces.
Thus a great number of the country districtsthe ~O~i~ above mentionedwere transformed into municipal corporations, and thereby withdrawn from the immediate government of the king and his officials (satraps or strategi), though still subject to their control, except in the cases where they received unconditional freedom and so ranked as confederates.
In order to gain money for prosecuting the war Agesilaus had supported the revolted satraps, and in 361 he went to Egypt at the head of a mercenary force to aid Tachos against Persia.
Having been dismissed by Timotheus (362) he joined the revolted satraps Memnon and Mentor in Asia, but soon lost their confidence, and was obliged to seek the protection of the Athenians.
Effecting his escape from Nora, he raised an army, and formed a coalition with the satraps of the eastern provinces.
210, however, their power in the west seems to have died out, and their place was taken by the foreign dynasty of the Kshaharatas, the Saka satraps of Surashtra (Kathiawar), who in 120 had mastered Ujjain and Gujarat and had built up a rival kingdom to the north.
40 the coast cities had been much enriched by trade with the Roman empire, which both the Satavahanas and the satraps did much to encourage; but after the fall of Palmyra (273) and the extinction of the main Kshaharata dynasty (c. 300) this commerce fell into decay.
As the authority of the Hittite satraps at Sardis began to decay the Heraclid dynasty arose.
But his advice was overridden by the Persian satraps, who forced him to fight at the Granicus.
Hence rebellions of satraps became frequent from the middle of the 5th century; under Artaxerxes II.