A satrap of Bactria, who revolted against Artaxerxes I., but was defeated in two battles (Ctes.
When Alexander had won the victory of Arbela, and occupied Babylon and Susa, he met (in the spring of 330) with strong resistance in Persia, where the satrap Ariobarzanes tried to stop his progress at the "Persian gates," the pass leading up to Persepolis.
1 Here the satrap Andragoras appears to have shaken off the Seleucid supremacy, as he struck gold and silver coins in his own name, on which he wears the diadem, although not the royal title (Gardner, Numism.
The government of the Persian satrap was seated in Memphis.
These, no doubt, possessed municipal autonomy with the ordinary organization of the Greek state; to what extent they were formally and regularly controlled by the provincial authorities we do not know; Pithon, the satrap of the Indian province is specially described as sent "in colonias in Indis conditas" (Just.
When Antipater died, in 319, a second war broke out, the wrecks of the party of Perdiccas, led by Eumenes, combining with Polyperchon, the new regent, and later on (318) with the eastern satraps who were in arms against Pithon, the satrap of Media.
Seleucus at any rate, as satrap of Babylonia, controlled the finances of the province (Diod.
By the earlier Greek authors (Herodotus, Thucydides and often in Xenophon) it is rendered by i»rapxos lieutenant, governor," in the documents from Babylonia and Egypt and in Ezra and Nehemiah by pakha, " governor "; and the satrap Mazaeus of Cilicia and Syria in the time of Darius III.
89 sqq.) The satrap was the head of the administration of his province; he collected the taxes, controlled the local officials and the subject tribes and cities, and was the supreme judge of the province to whose " chair " (Nehem.
The satrapic administration was retained by Alexander and his successors, especially in the Seleucid empire, where the satrap generally is designated as strategus; but their provinces were much smaller than under the Persians.
The Persian satrap of this name unsuccessfully opposed Alexander the Great on his way to Persepolis (331 B.C.).
ARTAPHERNES, more correctly Artaphrenes, brother of Darius Hystaspis, and satrap of Sardis.
It was said to have been founded by Megarians and Argives under Byzas about 6S7 B.C., but the original settlement having been destroyed in the reign of Darius Hystaspes by the satrap Otanes, it was recolonized by the Spartan Pausanias, who wrested it from the Medes after the battle of Plataea (479 B.C.) - a circumstance which led several ancient chroniclers to ascribe its foundation to him.
Finding Samos in the hands of Cyprothemis, a servant of the satrap Tigranes, he laid siege to it, captured it after a ten months' siege and established a cleruchy.
Chares sought to replenish his resources by aiding the Phrygian satrap Artabazus against Artaxerxes Ochus, but a threat from the Persian court caused the Athenians to recall him, and peace was made by which Athens recognized the independence of the revolted towns.
In 494, when the defeated Ionians were obliged to sue for terms, he was one of the ambassadors to the Persian satrap Artaphernes, whom he persuaded to restore the constitution of the Ionic cities (Diod.
At the very beginning the satrap Artabanus raised a rebellion in Bactria, but was defeated in two battles.
Out of it sprang the rebellion of Megabyzus, who was greatly exasperated because, though he had persuaded Inarus to surrender by promising that his life would be spared, Artaxerxes, yielding to the entreaties of his wife Amytis, who wanted to take revenge on Inarus for the death of her brother Achaemenes, the satrap of Egypt, had surrendered him to her for execution.
The king could do little against them; even Autophradates, satrap of Lydia, who had remained faithful, was forced for some time to unite himself with the rebels.
But every one of the allies mistrusted all the others; and the sole object of every satrap was to improve his condition and his personal power, and to make a favourable peace with the king, for which his neighbours and former allies had to pay the costs.
But Lysander's boundless influence and ambition, and the superhuman honours paid him, roused the jealousy of the kings and the ephors, and, on being accused by the Persian satrap Pharnabazus, he was recalled to Sparta.
He confounds Dionysius the elder and Dionysius the younger, Mithradates satrap of Artaxerxes and Mithradates the Great, Scipio the elder and Scipio the younger, Perseus, king of Macedonia and Perseus the companion of Alexander; he mixes up the stratagems of Caesar and Pompey; he brings into immediate connexion events which were totally distinct; he narrates some events twice over, with variations according to the different authors from whom he draws.
In 732 B.C. Damascus fell; Rezon was put to death, and an Assyrian satrap appointed in his stead.
Alexander's general, Ptolemy Lagi, becomes Satrap of Egypt.
The rulers of these provinces bore the title of Satrap (Kshatrapa or Chhatrapa) and were apparently subordinate to a king who ruled over the valley of Kabul and the Punjab.
Halicarnassus and other Dorian cities of Asia were to some extent absorbed by the Delian League, but the peace of Antalcidas in 387 made them subservient to Persia; and it was under Mausolus, a Persian satrap who assumed independent authority, that Halicarnassus attained its highest prosperity.
The marriage, however, was forbidden by Philip. Alexander, as soon as he had reduced Ionia, summoned Halicarnassus, where Memnon, the paramount satrap of Asia Minor, had taken refuge with the Persian fleet, to surrender; and on its refusal took the city after hard fighting and devastated it, but not being able to reduce the citadel, was forced to leave it blockaded.
The route followed by Alexander, though he also crossed at Thapsacus, took him unresisted across the northern parts; but the poor people of Mesopotamia suffered from the measures taken by their satrap Mazaeus to impede Alexander's progress.
The city was distinguished by its cosmopolitan character; the satrap resided there when he came to Phoenicia, and the Persian monarch had his paradise outside the walls.
About 388 he conquered the Saka satrap of Surashtra (Kathiawar) and penetrated to the Arabian Sea.
After the first rebellion of Egypt, he became satrap of Egypt (484 B.C.); he commanded the Persian fleet at Salamis,.
BESSUS, satrap of Bactria and Sogdiana under Darius III.
Pharnabazus, weary of bearing the whole cost of the war for the Peloponnesians, agreed to a period of truce so that envoys might visit Susa, but at this stage the whole position was changed by the appointment of Cyrus the Younger as satrap of Lydia, Greater Phrygia and Cappadocia.
Aryandes, satrap of Egypt, is said by Herodotus to have been punished by Darius for coining money of equal fineness with that of the king in Persia: thus coinage had then begun in Egypt.
Aided by an Athenian force, Inaros slew the satrap Achaemenes at the battle of Papremis and destroyed his army; but the garrison of Memphis held out, and a fresh host from Persia raised the siege and in turn besieged the Greek and Egyptian forces on the island of Papremis.
He acquired his surname of Soter, or Saviour, from the Babylonians, whom he delivered from the tyranny of the Median satrap, Timarchus, and is famous in Jewish history for his contests with the Maccabees.
When Alexander had defeated Darius III., his murderer Bessus, the satrap of Bactria, tried to organize a national resistance in the east.
The many difficulties against which the Seleucid kings had to fight and the attacks of Ptolemy II., gave to Diodotus, satrap of Bactria, the opportunity of making himself independent (about 255 B.C.) and of conquering Sogdiana.
There Alcibiades met the satrap Tissaphernes in 411 B.C., and thence succeeded in getting the Phoenician fleet, intended to co-operate with Sparta, sent back home.
After the death of Alexander (323 B.C.) Ptolemy Lagi, who became satrap and then king of Egypt by right of conquest (Diodorus xviii.
Their rulers, of whom the first to be mentioned is Bhumaka, of the Kshaharata family, took the Persian title of satrap (Kshatrapa).
6) made satrap of Hyrcania, where he was afterwards slain by Oebares against the will of Cyrus, who gave him a splendid funeral.
Divided the Persian Empire into twenty great provinces, satrapies, with a guardian of the country (khshal/zrapavan; see SATRAP) at the head of each.
The satrap is the head of the whole administration of his province.
The satrap is held in his position as a subjec.t by the controlling machinery of the empire, especially the Eye of the King; by the council of Persians in his province with whom he is bound to debate all matters of importance; and by the army: while in the hands of the messengers (Pers.
The satrap revolts, moreover, assumed more and more formidable proportions, and the Greek states began once more to tamper with them.
In northern Media alone, which lay outside the main scene of operations and had only been partially subject to the later Achaemenids, the Persian satrap Atropates, appointed by Alexander, maintained his independence and bequeathed his province to his successors.
(220) he subdued, with the help of his minister Hermias, an insurrection of the Antiochus satrap Molon of Media, who had assumed the royal Il., the title and was supported by his brother Alexander, Great.
Satrap Of Persis (Polyb.
On his arrival at Ephesus a three months' truce was concluded with Tissaphernes, the satrap of Lydia and Caria, but negotiations conducted during that time proved fruitless, and on its termination Agesilaus raided Phrygia, where he easily won immense booty since Tissaphernes had concentrated his troops in Caria.