The emergence of Satan as a definite supernatural personality, the head or prince of the world of evil spirits, is entirely a phenomenon of post-exilian Judaism.
But in Judaism monotheistic conceptions reigned supreme, and the Satan of Jewish belief as opposed to God stops short of the dualism of Persian religion.
They believed in the existence of two gods, a good (whose son was Christ) and an evil (whose son was Satan); matter is the creation of the evil principle, and therefore essentially evil, and the greatest of all sins is sexual intercourse, even in marriage; sinful also is the possession of material goods, and the eating of flesh meat, and many other things.
18: "I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven" (cf.
1), were interpreted by the Christian Fathers as referring to the passage in Isaiah; whence, in Christian theology, Lucifer came to be regarded as the name of Satan before his fill.
At his appearing all nature rejoices (Yasht, 13, 93); he enters into conflict with the demons and rids the earth of their presence (Yasht, 17,19); Satan approaches him as tempter to make him renounce his faith (Vendidad, 19, 6).
By a true confession of faith, by every good deed, word and thought, by continually keeping pure his body and his soul, he impairs the power of Satan and strengthens the might of goodness, and establishes a claim for reward upon Ormazd; by a false confession, by every evil deed, word and thought and defilement, he increases the evil and renders service to Satan.
If his evil works outweigh his good, he falls finally under the power of Satan, Vand the pains of hell are his portion for ever.
Among the former those most inculcated are renunciation of Satan, adoration of Ormazd, purity of soul and body, and care of the cow.
Satan will be cast, along with all those who have been delivered over to him to suffer the pains of hell, into the abyss, where he will henceforward lie powerless.
Satan himself, " the venomous Beast," will be restored to his angelic nature.
24, the Greek translation of the Hebrew "Satan"); the role assigned him (envy) is similar to that expressed in "Secrets of Enoch," xxxi.
23), that is, they are humanized, and the Elohim beings (including the Satan) in the prologue belong to a popular story, the figure of Satan being used by the author to account for Job's, calamities; in Tobit the "affable" Raphael is a clever man of the world.
In Job, which is probably the earliest of the philosophical books, the question whether God is just is not definitely answered: the prologue affirms that the sufferings of good men, suggested by the sneer of Satan, are intended to demonstrate the reality of human goodness; elsewhere (v.
(iv.) The Book of Adam and Eve, also called the Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan, translated from the Ethiopic (1882) by Malan.
Similarly the Armenian writer Gregory Magistros (c. 1040) accuses the Thonraki of teaching that "Moses saw not God, but the devil," and infers thence that they held Satan to be creator of heaven and earth, as well as of mankind.
The Key of Truth teaches that after the fall Adam and Eve and their children were slaves of Satan until the advent of the newly created Adam, Jesus Christ.
The monkish garb was revealed by Satan to Peter at the baptism, when it was the devil, the ruler of this world, who, so costumed, leaned forward and said, This is my beloved son.
They made the most of Paul's antithesis between law and grace, bondage to Satan and freedom of the Spirit.
So Gregory of Narck upbraids the Thonraki for their "anthropolatrous apostasy, their selfconf erred contemptible priesthood which is a likening of themselves to Satan" (= Christ in Thonraki parlance).
In the cave the saint held his famous colloquy with the devil, in which Satan was worsted and contemptuously dismissed.
His extraordinary thinness is commemorated, among other things, by the very poor but well-known epigram attributed to Young, and identifying him at once with "Satan, Death and Sin."
The dualism of the earlier Zoroastrians, which may be compared with the Christian doctrine of God and Satan, gradually tended in la.
This principle, which shows itself clearly at first in the conception that the various nations are under angelic rulers, who are in a greater or less degree in rebellion against God, as in Daniel and Enoch, grows in strength with each succeeding age, till at last Satan is conceived as "the ruler of this world" (John xii.
When once it had taught men that the next world was God's world, though it did so at the cost of relinquishing the present to Satan, it had achieved its real task, and the time had come for it to quit the stage of history, when Christianity appeared as the heir of this true spiritual achievement.
I must have made the acquaintance of Shylock and Satan about the same time, for the two characters were long associated in my mind.