His father Anak, head of the Parthian clan of Suren, was bribed about the time of his birth (c. 257) by the Sassanid king of Persia to assassinate the Armenian king, Chosroes, who was of the old Arsacid dynasty, and father of Tiridates or Trdat, first Christian king of Armenia.
Gregory persuaded Tiridates to destroy the last relics of the old paganism, and carried out in the religious sphere his sovereign's policy of detaching Great Armenia from the Sassanid realm and allying it with the GraecoRoman empire and civilization.
226 by Ardashir (Artaxerxes), the founder of the Sassanid empire, whose conquests began about A.D.
(q.v.), the founder of the Sassanid empire.
During the last years of the Sassanid dynasty the work was resumed, the former collection being revised and greatly added to by the Dihkan Danishwer, assisted by several learned mobeds.
The Sassanid king, Bahram V., fought several campaigns with them and succeeded in keeping them at bay, but they defeated and killed Peroz (Firuz), A.D.
Ovapapavris or Obpapavris, the younger form of the old Verethragna, the name of a Persian god, "the killer of the dragon Verethra"), the name of five Sassanid kings.
FIRUZABAD), Sassanid king of Persia, A.D.
CHOSROES, in Middle and Modern Persian Khosrau (" with a good name "), a very common Persian name, borne by a famous king of the Iranian legend (Kai Khosrau); by a Parthian king, commonly called by the Greeks Osroes; and by the following two Sassanid kings.
Chosroes I., " the Blessed " (Anushirvan), 531-579, the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I., and the most famous of the Sassanid kings.
The victory at Nehavend in 641 over the Persians, the flight of the last Sassanid king and the capture of Rei or Rai (class.
It was borne by several dynasts of Persis, when it formed an independent kingdom in the time of the Parthian empire (on their coins they call themselves Artakhshathr; one of them is mentioned by Lucian, Macrobii, 15), and by three kings of the Sassanid dynasty, who are better known under the modern form Ardashir.
Trans., 1886), and later they fell under the Sassanid rule.
If they accepted the council of Ephesus in 430 and joined in the condemnation of Nestorius, it was rather because the Sassanid kings of Persia, who thirsted for the reconquest of Armenia, favoured Nestorianism, a form of doctrine current in Persia and rejected in Byzantium.
And in fact it is quite evident that a book which gives the division of the Sassanid Empire into four spahbehships in pure old Persian names cannot possibly have been composed at a long interval after the time of the Sassanidae.
The Sassanid kings of Persia ruled a dominion which extended from the confines of Syria to those of India, and from the straits of Oman to the Caucasus.
(See further Persia: Ancient History, " The Sassanid Dynasty.") These enterprises had begun in 533 with an attack on the Vandals, who were then reigning in Africa.
SASSANID, Or Sassanian Dynasty (Or Sasanian), the ruling dynasty of the neo-Persian empire founded by Ardashir I.
Yazdeged, the last of the Sassanid kings of Persia, who died in 651, when defeated and hard pressed by the Moslems, invoked the aid of China; the Chinese emperor, Taitsung, issued an edict organizing the whole country from Ferghana to the borders of Persia into three Chinese administrative districts, with 126 military cantonments, an organization which, however, probably only existed on paper.
Tokharistan in general formed a part successively of the empires of the Sassanid dynasty (terminated A.D.
222-235), when the city was at the height of its splendour, the issue of coinage comes to an end, and there is no more building of sumptuous tombs, owing apparently to some sudden catastrophe, such as an invasion by the neo-Persian power under the Sassanid dynasty.
But the Persians were not so ready as the Greeks to give up the contest; they did not rest until the Moslems had subjugated the whole of the Sassanid empire.
In the end, all the numerous and partly autonomous provinces of the Sassanid empire fell, one after the other, into the hands of the Moslems, and the young king, Yazdegerd III.
The Pahlavi is properly the alphabet of the Sassanid kings who ruled in Persia from A.D.
Ewald refers it to the end of the Persian period, about 350 B.C. (an opinion which Westcott declared to be "almost certainly correct"); Kohut thinks that the book was composed in Persia under the Sassanid Dynasty, about A.D.
A.A ncient, to the Fall of the Sassanid Dynasty.
In Firdousi, the legendary princes are followed, almost without a break, by Ardashir, the founder of the Sassanid dynasty: the intervening episode of Darius and Alexander is not drawn from native tradition, but borrowed from Greek literature (the Alexander-romance of the Pseudo-Callisthenes) in precisely the same way as among the nations of the Christian East in the middle ages.i Needless to say, however, this long period saw the Saga much recast and expanded.
And it is possible that the primeval empire of the Saga is only a reflection of the Achaemenid and Sassanid empires of reality, whose existence legend dates back to the beginning of the world, simply because legend is pervaded by the assumption that the conditions obtaining in the present are the natural conditions, and, as such, valid for all time.
The Sassanid Empire, indeed, is completely dominated by this formalism and ritualism; but the earlier testimony of Darius in his inscriptions and the statements in Herodotus enable us still to recognize the original healthy life of a religion capable of awakening the enthusiastic devotion of the inner man.
The period, from the death of Alexander to the Sassanid Ardashir I., is put by the Persian tradition at 266 years; which was afterwards corrected, after Syro-Grecian evidence, to 523 years.
In later times, before the foundation of the Sassanid dominion, Penis was disintegrated into numerous small local states.
Shapur was in no position to repair the defeat, or even to hold Armenia; so that the Sassanid power failed to pass the bounds of the Arsacid Empire.
The Sassanid ruler is the representative of the Kingly Majesty, derived from Ormuzd, which appears in the Avesla as the angel Kavaem Hvareno, the royal glory, and, according to legend, once beamed in the Iranian kings, unattainable to all but those of royal blood.
Therefore the native tradition carries the Sassanid line back to the Achaemenids and, still further, to the kings of the legendary period.
But the older Achaemenids held an entirely different pQsition; and hardly a single Sassanid enjoyed even that degree of power which was still retained by the later Achaemenids.
As has already been indicated, it was in their religious attitudes that the essential difference lay between the Sassanid Empire and the older Iranian states.
The further religious development of the Sassanid Empire will be touched upon later.
I For the propagation and history of the Christians in the Sassanid Empire, cf.
At these places and in Sarwistan, near Shiraz and elsewhere, lie ruins of the Sassanid palaces, which in their design go back, to the Achaemenid architecture, blending with it, however, Graeco-Syrian elements and serving in their turn as models for the structures of the Caliphs (see ARcHITECTURE:
In the intellectual life and literature of the Sassanid era the main characteristic is the complete disappearance of Hellenism and the Greek language.
In foreign policy the problems under the Sassanid kings i List of kings (after Noldeke, Tabari, p. 435).
In the first two centuries of the Sassanid Empire we hear practically nothing of ~he of its relations with the East.
For this very reason the Sassanid Empire was the more constrained to champion Zoroastrianism.
Of Diodotus in 250 B.C., had undergone enlirely Sassanid different vicissitudes from the rest of Iran, was ~ o~ once more united to an Iranian Empire, and the Sassanid dominions, for the first time, passed the frontiers of the Arsacids.
Transition Period: from the Fall of the Sassanid Dynasty to 1/re Death of Timur (1405).