Estheria (RUppell, 1837) was instituted for the species dahalacensis, which Sars includes in his genus Leptestheria (1898); but Estheria was already appropriated, and of its synonyms Cyzicus (Audouin, 1837) is lost for vagueness, while Isaura (Joly, 5842) is also appropriated, so that Leptestheria becomes the name of the typical genus, and determines the name of the family.
Sars, " Rhabdopleura," Christiania Univ.
" National, " the Danish " Ingolf " expedition, and the minor expeditions of the " Michael Sars," " Jackal," " Research," &c., and since 1902 it has been periodically examined by the International Council for the Study of the Sea.
The most important were: the Australian Antarctic expedition of 1911-4 under Sir Douglas Mawson; the Danish Oceanographical expeditions in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas of 1908-10; a short cruise made by Sir John Murray and Dr. Johan Hjort in the Norwegian Fishery exploring vessel " Michael Sars " in 1910, the general results of which were published as The Depths of the Ocean (1912) by the leaders of the expedition; and a short special cruise made by the " Scotia " in 1913 (after the loss of the " Titanic ") under the leadership of Dr. Matthews, which made observations upon the distribution of ice in the North Atlantic.
Vaughan Thompson is a type of the marine zoologists, such as Dalyell, Michael Sars, P. J.
The soundings of the Dutch expedition on hung on the sounding-tube that it was automatically released the " Siboga " during1899-1900in the eastern part of the on striking the bottom and left behind, while the light brass tube Malay seas and those of the German surveying ship " Planet " containing a sample of the deposit was easily hauled up. This in 1906 in the South Atlantic, Indian and North Pacific Oceans principle has been adopted universally for deep soundings, and were notable, and Sir John Murray's expedition on the " Michael is now applied in many forms. In 1855 Maury published Sars " in the Atlantic in 1910 obtained important results.
Sars, Norges politiske historia (Christiania, 1899) Yngvar Nielsen, Carl Johan som han virkelig var (Christiania, 1897); Johan Almen, Atten Bernadotte (Stockholm, 1893); C. Schefer, Bernadotte roi (Paris, 1899); G.
The choice is open to maintain the last as an independent subclass, and to follow Claus in calling it the Leptostraca, or to introduce it among the Malacostraca as the Nebaliacea, or with Packard and Sars to make it an entomostracan subdivision under the title Phyllocarida.
Recently Sars has added a Norwegian species, N.
There are also now two more genera, Paranebalia (Claus, 1880), in which the branchial feet are much longer than in Nebalia, and Nebaliopsis (Sars, 1887), in which they are much shorter.
The equivalent terms applied by Sars are Anostraca, Notostraca, Conchostraca, involving a termination already appropriated to higher divisions of the Crustacean class, for which it ought to be reserved.
This species from the high north of Europe and Asia carries green eggs, and above them a bright pattern in ultramarine (Sars, 1896, 1897).
Of Branchiopsyllus (Sars, 1897) the male is not yet known, but in his genera of the same date, the Siberian Artemiopsis and the South African Branchipodopsis (1898), there is no such appendage.
The development usually begins with a nauplius stage (Sars, 1896, 1900).
Sars (1887) having had the opportunity of raising it from dried Australian mud, found that, unlike other phyllopods, but like the Cladocera, the parent keeps its brood within the shell until their full development.
The eye is single, and in addition to the eye there is often an " eye-spot, "Monospilus being unique in having the eye-spot alone and no eye, while Leydigiopsis (Sars, Igo') has an eye with an eye-spot equal to it or larger.
Dr Jules Richard in his revision (1895) retains the sections proposed by Sars in 1865, Calyptomera and Gymnomera.
In this family Macrothrix (Baird, 1843) is the earliest genus, among the latest being Grimaldina (Richard, 1892) and Jheringula (Sars, 1900).
Paulo in Brazil supplied Sars with representatives of all the three in his Norwegian aquaria, in some of which the little Macrothrix elegans " multiplied to such an extraordinary extent as at last to fill up the water with immense shoals of individuals."
For Streblocerus pygmaeus, grown under the same conditions, Sars observes: " This is perhaps the smallest of the Cladocera known, and is hardly more than visible to the naked eye," the adult female scarcely exceeding 0.25 mm.
Dadaya macrops (Sars, 1901), from South America and Ceylon, has a very large eye and an eye-spot fully as large, but it is a very small creature, odd in its behaviour, moving by jumps at the very surface of the water.
To the Polyphemidae, the wellknown family of the former tribe, Sars in 1897 added two remarkable genera, Cercopagis, meaning " tail with a sling," and Apagis, " without a sling," for seven species from the Sea of Azov.
The four tribes instituted by Sars in 1865 were reduced to two by G.
They have the valves broad at both ends, and were placed by Sars in a separate tribe, called Platycopa.
The first of these families is often called Centropagidae, but, as Sars has pointed out, Diaptomus (Westwood, 1836) is the oldest genus in it.
Sars (1901) proposed seven suborders - Calanoida, Harpacticoida, Cyclopoida, Notodelphoida, Monstrilloida, Caligoida, Lernaeoida.
P. 419 (1896); Hansen " Choniostomatidae " (1897); Sars, Proc. Mus.
2, p. 31 (1899); Sars, Arch.
Neomenia, mentioned first by Michael Sars in 1868 under the name Solenopus, was afterwards included among the Opisthobranchs by J.
According to Sars, the 1 In Huxley's terminology the first two or three joints of the stem constitute a "protopodite," from which spring the "endopodite" and "exopodite."
Hansen and others form a distinct order Tanaidea for the decidedly anomalous group called by Sars Isopoda chelifera.
In the same family stands the genus Sylon, noted by Kroyer without a name in 1842, named by him without a description in 1855, described by Michael Sars in 1869, and published by G.
Sars in 1870.
Sars of Christiania.
Among many papers that the student will find it necessary to consult may be mentioned the "Challenger" Report on Schizopoda, by Sars, 1885, dealing with the order at large; "British Schizopoda," by Norman Ann.
Soc. (London, 1900); Mysidae of the Russian Empire, by Czernia y ski (1882-1883); and Mysidae of the Caspian, by Sars (1893-1895-1897).
Sars led the way to the great series of researches which he has continued to the present day.
In this genus alone of the known Sympoda the eyes sometimes form a pair, in accordance with the custom of all other malacostracan orders except this and of this order itself in the embryo (Sars, 1900).
This mechanism as a whole is unique, although, as Sars observes, the epipod of the first maxillipeds has a respiratory function also in the Lophogastridae and Mysidae and in the cheliferous isopods.
3), have been recorded by Sars from the Caspian Sea.
(Isopoda), Sars (1896-1899), while their multitude precludes specification of important contributions by Benedict, Bovallius, Chilton, Dohrn, Dollfus, Fraisse, Giard and Bonnier, Harger, Haswell, Kossmann, Miers, M`Murrich, Norman, Harriet Richardson, Ohlin, Studer, G.
(Amphipoda), Sars (1890-1895), demanding attention, and the quite recent Amphipoda of the Hirondelle, Chevreux (1900), and Hyperiidea of the Plankton-Expedition, Vosseler (1901).