Perhaps the largest tumulus on record is the tomb of Alyattes, king of Lydia, situated near Sardis, constructed in his own lifetime, before 560 B.C. It is a huge mound, i180 ft.
He first went to take possession of the old Lydian capital Sardis, the headquarters of the Persian government on this side of the Taurus, and the strong city surrendered without a blow.
It lay on the ancient trade route from Sinope to the Euphrates, on the Persian "Royal Road" from Sardis to Susa, and on the great Roman highway from Ephesus to the East.
Samsat itself represents the ancient Samosata, the capital of the Seleucid kings of Commagene (Kuinukh of the Assyrian inscriptions), and here the Persian Royal Road from Sardis to Susa is supposed to have crossed the river.
In the autumn of 546 Sardis was taken and the Lydian kingdom became a province of the Persians.
In the spring of 401 Cyrus united all his forces and advanced from Sardis, without announcing the object of his expedition.
About 262 Antiochus tried to break the growing power of Pergamum by force of arms, but suffered defeat near Sardis and died soon afterwards (262).
Again the garrisons in the chief cities, such as Sardis, Babylon, Memphis Pelusium and Susa, were under commands distinct from those of the provinces.
45), Aribazus, governor of Sardis (Polyb.
This view is reflected, for example, in the canon of Melito of Sardis, and in the prefaces and letters of Jerome.
Nothing purely Hittite has been found at Sardis or in any W.
SARDIS, more correctly Sardes (al Xap& ts), the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a conventus under the Roman Empire, and the metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman and Byzantine times, was situated in the middle Hermus valley, at the foot of Mt.
The earliest reference to Sardis is in the Persae of Aeschylus (472 B.C.); in the Iliad the name Hyde seems to be given to the city of the Maeonian (i.e.
Lydian) chiefs, and in later times Hyde was said to be the older name of Sardis, or the name of its citadel.
It is, however, more probable that Sardis was not the original capital of the Maeonians, but that it became so amid the changes which produced the powerful Lydian empire of the 8th century B.C. The city was captured by the Cimmerians in the 7th century, by the Persians and by the Athenians in the 6th, and by Antiochus the Great at the end of the 3rd century.
The early Lydian kingdom was far advanced in the industrial arts (see Lydia), and Sardis was the chief seat of its manufactures.
Sardis then lay rather apart from the great lines of communication and lost some of its importance.
The country round Sardis was frequently ravaged both by Christians and by Turks during the 13th century.
Soon after 1301 the Seljuk amirs overran the whole of the Hermus and Cayster valleys, and a fort on the citadel of Sardis was handed over to Aragonese period.
The latest reference to the city of Sardis relates its capture (and probable destruction) by Timur in 1402.
The ruins of Sardis, so far as they are now visible, are, chiefly of the Roman time; but though few ancient sites offered better hope of results, the necessity for heavy initial expenditure was a deterrent (e.g.
From Sardis, a little south of the sacred Gygaean Lake, Coloe; here the Maeonian chiefs, sons, according to Homer, of the lake, were brought to sleep beside their mother.
25), expressly enumerating the twenty-two books of the old covenant as acknowledged by the Jews and accepted by the Christian church, names "the First and Second Ezra in one book"; Melito of Sardis (Euseb.
Thus a treatise of some description was written upon it by Melito of Sardis in Asia Minor (Eus.
The belief on which this festival rests has its origin in apocryphal sources, such as the Eis 7-7)v Koi / C?7] (.v ri s inrEpa-yi.as OfcrroLvn g ascribed to the Apostle John, and the de transitu Mariae, assigned to Melito, bishop of Sardis, but actually written about A.D.
He undertook the long and perilous journey from Sardis to the Persian capital Susa, visited Babylon, Colchis, and the western shores of the Black Sea as far as the estuary of the Dnieper; he travelled in Scythia and in Thrace, visited Zante and Magna Graecia, explored the antiquities of Tyre, coasted along the shores of Palestine, saw Gaza, and made a long stay in Egypt.
Hayes, is of interest, and the city has a public library (1873) and parks, in large measure the gifts of his uncle, Sardis Birchard.
His tomb still exists on the plateau between lake Gygaea and the river Hermus to the north of Sardis - a large mound of earth with a substructure of huge stones.
The Novatians and the Quartodecima.ns were the next objects of his orthodox zeal - a zeal which in the case of the former at least was reinforced, according to Socrates, by his envy of their bishop; and it led to serious and fatal disturbances at Sardis and Miletus.
As the crusaders marched by way of Dorylaeum and Iconium towards Antioch, the Greeks subdued the Turkish amirs residing at Smyrna, Ephesus, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea, Lampes and Polybotus; 1 and Kilij Arslan, with his Turks, retired to the north-eastern parts of Asia Minor, to act with the Turkish amirs of Sivas (Sebaste), known under the name of the Danishmand.
Aristomenes retired to Ialysus in Rhodes, where Damagetus, his son-in-law, was king, and died there while planning a journey to Sardis and Ecbatana to seek aid from the Lydian and Median sovereigns (Pausanias iv.
The second and much more serious host of warriors, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, he conducted also into Asia, promising to supply them with provisions in return for an oath of homage, and by their victories recovered for the Empire a number of important cities and islands - Nicaea, Chios, Rhodes, Smyrna, Ephesus, Philadelphia, Sardis, and in fact most of Asia Minor (1097-1099).
Mo-onros), famous for his Fables, is supposed to have lived from about 620 to 560 B.C. The place of his birth is uncertain - Thrace, Phrygia, Aethiopia, Samos, Athens and Sardis all claiming the honour.
In spite of this handicap Alcibiades, who had been seized and imprisoned by Tissaphernes at Sardis but effected his escape, achieved a remarkable victory over the Spartan Mindarus at Cyzicus (about April 410).
Sardis, the Seleucid capital in Asia Minor, had become a Greek city before the end of the 3rd century B.C. The main high road between the Aegean coast and the East was held by a series of new cities.
- Next in importance after Sardis among ancient sites explored in 1910-20 is the Greek city of Cyrene, also opened by American enterprise.
There can be traced in Asia Minor an ancient road-system, to which belongs the "royal road" from Sardis to the Persian capital, Susa (Herod.
Here must have stood the capital of some great empire connected with its extremities, Sardis or Ephesus on the west, Sinope on the north, the Euphrates on the east, the Cilician Gates on the south, by roads so well made as to continue in use for a long time after the centre of power had changed to Assyria, and the old road-system had become circuitous and unsuitable.
The ancient road from Pteria to Sardis crossed the upper Sangarius valley, and its course may be traced by the monuments of this early period.
Each of these roads was laid out with avenues of trees, with wells of water, and with frequent sardis or rest-houses.
The siege of Amorium in Phrygia was broken up, but Pergamum and Sardis were taken.
Too jealous of each other to combine, and too demoralized by luxury to resist, they fell an easy prey to Lydia; and when the Lydian kingdom ended with the capture of Sardis by Cyrus, 546 B.C. they passed, almost without resistance, to Persia.
A second victory followed on the banks of the Pactolus; by the autumn of 546 Sardis had already fallen and the Persian power advanced at a bound to the Mediterranean.
The description of the route from Susa to Sardis in Herod.
Within these, again, there might lie large town settlements whose internal affairs were controlled by the elders or the officials of the community: as, for instance, Babylon, Jerusalem, the Egyptian cities, Tarsus, Sardis and others.
3, 16), whom Assur-bani-pal calls "a limb of Satan," after sacking Sardis, had been slain in Cilicia, but other Scythian invaders came to take his place.
Mention may also be made of the following: Hecataeus of Miletus (550-476); Acusilaus of Argos, 2 who paraphrased in prose (correcting the tradition where it seemed necessary) the genealogical works of Hesiod in the Ionic dialect; he confined his attention to the prehistoric period, and made no attempt at a real history; Charon of Lampsacus (c. 450), author of histories of Persia, Libya, and Ethiopia, of annals (a)pot) of his native town with lists of the prytaneis and archons, and of the chronicles of Lacedaemonian kings; Xanthus of Sardis in Lydia (c. 450), author of a history of Lydia, one of the chief authorities used by Nicolaus of Damascus (II.
Persons) in Sardis which did not defile their garments."
In 393 (or 39 2 B.C.) he was sent to Tiribazus, satrap of Sardis, to undermine the friendly relations then existing between Athens and Persia by offering to recognize Persian claims to the whole of Asia Minor.
The terms were announced to the Greek envoys at Sardis in the winter 387-386, and were finally accepted by Sparta in 386.