The Clupeidae, or herrings, are most abundant; and anchovies, or sardines, are found in shoals, but at irregular and uncertain intervals.
Industry consists chiefly in fishing (sardines, &c., and coral), the manufacture of tobacco, oil-distilling, tanning, and the preparation of preserved citron§ and of macaroni and similar provisions.
Among the fish may be mentioned the tunny, dolphin, mackerel, sardine, sea-bream, dentice and pagnell; wrasse, of exquisite rainbow hue and good for food; members of the herring family, sardines, anchovies, flying-fish, sea-pike; a few representatives of the cod family, and some flat fish; soles (very rare); Cernus which grows to large size; several species of grey and red mullet; eleven species of Triglidae, including the beautiful flying gurnard whose colours rival the angel-fish of the West Indies; and eighteen species of mackerel, all migratory.
There are large quantities of salmon in the lower Columbia river, in Gray's and Willapa harbours, and in Puget Sound; oyster fisheries in Gray's and Willapa harbours and in Puget Sound; cod, perch, flounders, smelt, herring and sardines in these and other salt waters.
The fish caught are principally sardines, bonito, smelts and sprats.
The principal fisheries are those on the Atlantic coast, carried on by the inhabitants of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and the eastern section of Quebec. Cod, herring, mackerel and lobsters are the fish chiefly caught, though halibut, salmon, anchovies and so-called sardines are also exported.
Stories tell how on one occasion a merchant, who had bought several cases of sardines at Nijni-Novgorod, found that they contained forbidden print instead of fish, and at another time a supposititious copy of the Kolokol was printed for the emperor's special use, in which a telling attack upon a leading statesman, which had appeared in the genuine number, was omitted.
The inhabitants are principally engaged in agriculture and the fisheries, and in the preservation of sardines, anchovies, &c. The breed of draught horses in the island is highly prized.
Sardines and oysters; hemp is woven, and the neighbourhood is famed for its fruit and wine.
It is the centre of the Algerian and Tunisian coral fisheries and has an extensive industry in the curing of sardines; but .the harbour is small and exposed to the N.E.
The fishermen and fisherwomen form a quite distinct class of the people; both sexes are noted for their bodily strength, and the men for their bold and skilful seamanship. Tunny and sardines are cured and exported in large quantities, oysters are also exported, and many other sea fish, such as hake, sea-bream, whiting, conger and various flat-fish are consumed in the country.
Shipbuilding is carried on, and large quantities of sardines are canned for export.
In 1909, 2041 ships of 2,710,691 tons (1,153,564 being British) entered at Vigo; the imports in that year, including tin and tinplate, coal, machinery, cement, sulphate of copper and foodstuffs, were valued at £481,752; the exports, including sardines, mineral waters and eggs, were valued at 554,824.
Herrings furnish oil and guano, and the young fish are packed as " sardines " at Juneau.
Fish, canned and preserved, followed next, $1,660,881 in 1890 and $4,779,773 in 1900, an increase within the decade of 187.8%, most of which was in one branch - the canning of small herring 1 under the name " sardines "; from 1900 to 1905 the increase was slight, only $275,358, or 5.8 / 0.
The sardines of the west coast of France, which are tinned in oil for export, are immature fish of the same stock as those taken on the coasts of Cornwall; they are 5 to 71 in.
Cheese, sardines, goats' skins and sheepskins are also exported.