He was also well known as a sanitary reformer, and during the last ten years of his life he did much useful work in inculcating more enlightened ideas on the subject both in Edinburgh and other places.
Little effort has been made to meet the increased sanitary requirements of the larger population and wider inhabited area.
The climate is naturally good, but continued neglect of sanitary precautions has made the city unhealthy.
During the twenty years preceding the census of 1901 there was a fall in the death rate of 3.4 per thousand, of which, however, 1 per thousand is attributable to the decline in the birth rate, the balance being attributable to improved sanitary conditions.
The city is well supplied with water and its sanitary state is good.
Its sanitary condition, though still defective, was improved by the drainage of the adjacent Almajar Marsh; and after 1870, when the population had dwindled to about 26,000, Cartagena advanced rapidly in size and wealth.
Of the sum spent by the communes, about 1/2 goes for the sanitary service (doctors, midwives, vaccination), 3/4 for the maintenance of foundlings, i11 for the support of the sick in hospitals, and I~1 for sheltering the aged and needy.
Comes sweeping into it; and thus, while all the muddy deposit of the rivers is swept away, the malaria is at the same time removed, and by this means the city enjoys so good a sanitary reputation that the government has fixed on it as a place for the reception and training of gladiators."
The extraordinary architectural skill, the sanitary and hydraulic science revealed in details of the building, bring us at the same time face to face with the power of mechanical invention with which Daedalus was credited.
The standard of life of the ordinary well-to-do middle class in England, for example, includes not only food, clothing and shelter of a kind different in many respects from that of a similar class in other countries and of other classes in England, but a highly complicated mechanism, both public and private, for ministering to these primary needs, habits of social intercourse, educational and sanitary organization, recreative arrangements and many other elements.
In 1885 the urban sanitary district was erected into a parliamentary borough, returning two members for the northern and southern divisions respectively.
A sanitary and ship canal 34 m.
17: Survey of Northern and North-western Lakes, U.S. Lake Survey Office (Detroit, Michigan, 1907); St Lawrence Pilot, 7th ed., Hydrographic Office Admiralty (London, 1906); Effect of Withdrawal of Water from Lake Michigan by the Sanitary District of Chicago, U.S. House of Representatives' Document No.
Sanitary institutes are held by the state board at various towns each year for the instruction of the public. Boards of appraisers and equalization oversee the administration of the tax system; the cost of collection, owing to the fee system for payment of collectors, was higher than in any other state of the Union until 1907, when the fees were greatly reduced.
The Cuban coast was uninterruptedly full of infection, and the danger of an outbreak in each year was never absent, until the work of the United States army in 1901-1902 conclusively proved that this disease, though ineradicable by the most extreme sanitary measures, based on the accepted theory of its origin as a filth-disease, could be eradicated entirely by removing the possibility of inoculation by the Stegomyia mosquito.
The remarkable sanitary work begun during the American occupation and continued by the republic of Cuba, has shown that the ravages of this and other diseases can be greatly diminished.
By these Cuba was bound not to incur debts her current revenues will not bear; to continue the sanitary administration undertaken by the military government of intervention; to lease naval stations (since located at Bahia Honda and Guantanamo) to the United States; and finally, the right of the United States to intervene, if necessary, in the affairs of the island was explicitly affirmed in the provision, " That the government of Cuba consents that the United States may exercise the right to intervene for the protection of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property and individual liberty, and for discharging the obligations with respect to Cuba imposed by the treaty of Paris on the United States, now to be assumed and undertaken by the government of Cuba."
Sanitary taxes, £T20,519, and fisheries and sporting licenses affected to the service of the public debt, £T153,990.
Law courts, government offices, prisons and a substantial bridge were built, good roads made, and a large staff of sanitary inspectors appointed.
This is not the conclusion of many observers, but it may be due to the excessive infant mortality among the lower classes, where an observance of the simplest sanitary laws is practically unknown.
Next to the poor rate came that for highways, and other special rates have been authorized from time to time, as for police, education, public lighting, cemeteries, libraries, sanitary purposes, &c. To distinguish the rate the name of the precepting authority is frequently added or the purpose for which it is levied specified, as county rate, watch rate, &c. The valuation list of a parish is the basis on which the poor rate is levied.
The Parkes Museum of the Sanitary Institute is in Margaret Street.
In October 1896 the sanitary board census estimated the population as 107,078, of whom 50,907 were Europeans.
The sanitary condition is generally bad, and many forms of disease prevail that are not due to the climate.
The town is governed by a municipality, which since 1903 has acquired control of the sanitary service, water supply, electric lighting and tramways.
At home Crispi secured the adoption of the Sanitary and Commercial Codes, and reformed the administration of justice.
Wounds caused by projectiles, sabres, &c., are the special subject of naval and military surgery; while under the head of military hygiene we may include the general subject of ambulances, the sanitary arrangements of camps, and the various forms of epidemic camp sickness.
During the Civil War he was active in the work of the Sanitary Commission.
On the other hand, we know that in the first Christian services held in the catacombs under the city of Rome, incense was burnt as a sanitary fumigation at least.
There can be no doubt that its use throughout the East is based on sanitary considerations; and in Europe even, in the time when the dead were buried in the churches, it was recognized that the burning of incense served essentially to preserve their salubrity.
17, 20.) The ancients were familiar with the sanitary efficacy of fumigations.
The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.
With a further view to uniformity it has certain powers of supervision and control over local authorities, and can make by-laws respecting construction of local sewers, sanitary conveniences, offensive trades, slaughter-houses and dairies,, and prevention of nuisances outside the jurisdiction of local authorities.
A medical officer of health for the whole county is appointed by the Council, which also pays half the salaries of local medical officers and sanitary inspectors.
The sanitary authorities are concerned only with the supervision of house drainage, and the construction and maintenance of local sewers discharging into the main system.
The local sanitary authorities carry out the provisions of the Infectious Diseases (Notification and Prevention) Acts, which for London are embodied in the Public Health (London) Act 1891.
Port sanitary purposes from Teddington Lock seawards.
Under the Local Government Act 1888, the London County Council makes grants to boards of guardians, sanitary authorities and overseers in London in respect of certain services.
Metropolitan borough councils have to obtain the sanction of the Local Government Board to loans for baths, washhouses, public libraries, sanitary conveniences and certain other purposes under the Public Health Acts; for cemeteries the sanction of the Treasury is required, and for all other purposes that of the London County Council; poor law authorities, the metropolitan asylums board, the metropolitan water board and the central (unemployed) body require the sanction of the Local Government Board the receiver for the metropolitan police district that of the Home Office, and the London County Council that of parliament and the Treasury.
Climate and Sanitary Conditions.
The drainage system is still somewhat imperfect, but the water brought from the hills or from the Arno in pipes is fairly good, and the general sanitary conditions are satisfactory.
The city is growing in all directions, and a number of new quarters have sprung up where the houses are more sanitary than in the older parts, but unfortunately few of them evince much aesthetic feeling.
The earliest writers upon cholera emphasized its remarkable preference for particular places; and the history of each successive epidemic implies, besides an importation of the contagion, certain local conditions which may be either general sanitary defects or peculiarities of climate and soil.
These magnificent waterworks were opened in 1873, and their sanitary influence was soon felt, in the almost complete disappearance of typhoid fever, which had numerous victims before.
Another sanitary work of great importance was the improvement carried out in the drainage system, and the regulation of the river Wien.
Since the beginning of the 10th century strenuous efforts have been made to improve the sanitary condition by a new system of drainage, a better water service, the filling up of marshes wherein the malarial mosquito breeds, and in other directions.
Sanitary and other Services.
The departments of the Foreign Office are the African, American, commercial and sanitary, consular, eastern (Europe), far eastern, western (Europe), parliamentary, financial, librarian and keeper of the papers, treaties and registry.
There are efficient hospitals and asylums, a system of sanitary inspection, and modernized quarantine stations.
The marshes at the mouths of the Seybuse and Bujema rivers, which enter the sea to the south of Bona, have been drained by a system of canals, to the improvement of the sanitary condition of the town, which has the further advantage of an abundant water supply obtained from the Edugh hills.