You find thus in the very sands an anticipation of the vegetable leaf.
The landscape around them was bleak, almost as devoid of plant life as the white sands had been.
The oldest, bordering the Lower Carboniferous, is the Tuscaloosa formation of clays and sands arranged as follows: dark clays, thin lignite seams, lignitic clays, sands and chert, and light clays; this formation is 5-15 m.
Overlying the Tuscaloosa are the Eutaw sands, characterized by sandy laminated clays, and yellow, orange, red and blue sands, containing lignite and fossil resin.
The latest Cretaceous is the Ripley formation, which lies west of the northern part of the last-named, and, about Scooba, in a small strip, the most southerly of the Cretaceous - it is composed of coarse sandstones, hard crystalline white limestones, clays, sands, phosphatic greensands, and darkcoloured, micaceous, glauconitic marls; its greatest thickness is about 280 ft.
The calcareous Claiborne or ClaiborneLisbon formation-group lies south of the last, in a wedge-like strip with the apex on the Alabama boundary; it is a series of clays and sands, richly fossiliferous.
The Grand Gulf group, of formations of different ages, consisting of sands, sandstones and clays, and showing a few fossil plants, but no marine fossils, extends southward from the last to within a few miles of the coast, and is 750-800 ft.
Its materials are pebbles, clays and sands of various' colours from white to deep red, tinged with peroxide of iron, which sometimes cements the pebbles and sands into compact rocks.
Thus between Tibet and the low-lying sands of Gobi we have, thrust in, a system of elevated valleys (Tsaidam), 8000 to 9000 ft.
Above the present level of the Caspian, gives support to this hypothesis, which is further advanced by the ascertained nature of the Kara-kum sands, which appear to be a purely marine formation exhibiting no traces of fluviatile deposits which might be considered as delta deposits of the Oxus.
The earliest system adopted for the collection of petroleum appears to have consisted in Early skimming the oil from the surface of the water upon Methods which it had accumulated, and Professor Lesley states, that at Paint Creek, in Johnson county, Kentucky, a Mr George and others were in the habit of collecting oil from the sands, " by making shallow canals loo or 200 ft.
Long, with an upright board and a reservoir at one end, from which they obtained as much as 200 barrels per year by stirring the sands with a pole."
The earlier wells in Pennsylvania consisted of three sections, the first formed of surface clays and gravels, the second of stratified rocks containing water, and the third of stratified rocks, including the oil-sands, usually free from water.
They rode incessantly to battle over burning sands, in full armour 1 For instance, the abbey of Mount Sion had large possessions, not only in the Holy Land (at Ascalon, Jaffa, Acre, Tyre, Caesarea and Tarsus), but also in Sicily, Calabria, Lombardy, Spain and France (at Orleans, Bourges and Poitiers).
The police station is partly accommodated in an ancient square tower, once the stronghold of the Johnstones, for a long period the ruling family under whose protection the town gradually grew up. At Dryfe Sands, about 2 m.
While washing out the sands of the North Saskatchewan for gold is still somewhat resorted to, the only real mining in Alberta is that for coal.
The decisive movement was a passage in strength near Fuenterrabia, to the astonishment of Passage of the the enemy, who in view of the width of the river Bidassoa, and the shifting sands, had thought the crossing October 7, impossible at that point.
Wide, and its entrance from the sea by small vessels, except in the finest weather, was a perilous undertaking, owing to the shifting sands and a dangerous bar.
Gold is found in the sands of all its upper tributaries, and coal and petroleum are amongst the chief mineral products which have been brought into economic prominence.
Auriferous sands, but not very rich, have been discovered in the feeders of Lake Hanka and the Suifong river, as also on the smaller islands of the Gulf of Peter the Great.
Its foreshore consists of a great expanse of firm, bright sands, and the mildness of its winter climate is attributed to the radiation of heat from them.
They consist chiefly of sands and clays of aeolian and freshwater origin.
Its beautiful stretch of sands is flanked by a promenade extending all the way to Joppa.
In Roman times the Rhine at this part of its course seems to have been a full and flowing river, but by the 9th century it had lost itself in the sands of Katwijk, and it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that its way to the sea was re-opened.
In the south-east, however, the Blackheath and Woolwich pebble-beds appear, with their belts of Thanet sands bordering the chalk.
In the north and west the clay is interspersed with patches of plateau gravel in the direction of Finchley (where boulder clay also appears), Enfield and Barnet; and of Bagshot sands on Hampstead Heath and Harrow Hill.
Generally speaking, soils containing from 30 to 50% of clay and 50 to 60% of sand with an adequate amount of vegetable residues prove the most useful for ordinary farm and garden crops; such blends are known as " loams," those in which clay predominates being termed clay loalns, and those in which the sand predominates sandy roams. " Stiff clays " contain over 50% of clay; " light sands " have less than to %.
The ascent of water is most rapid through coarse sands, but the height to which it will rise is comparatively small.
The amount and nature of the clay or marl to be added to the soil will depend largely upon the original composition of the latter, the lighter sands and gravel requiring more clay than those of firmer texture.
It is best adapted for application to clays and fen lands and should not be practised on shallow light sands or gravelly soils, since the humus so necessary for the fertility of such areas is reduced too much and the soil rendered too porous and liable to suffer from drought.
In this manner poor peats and sands may be covered with a large layer of rock soil capable of growing excellent crops.
Dressing auriferous sands,gravels,&c.; 2.
Long; they collect from 10 to 15% of the whole gold; a further quantity is recovered by leading the sands through a gutter about 16 in.
In the Transvaal the operation occupies 32 to 4 days for fine sands, and up to 14 days for coarse sands; the quantity of cyanide per ton of tailings varies from 0.26 to 0.28 lb, for electrolytic precipitation, and o 5 lb for zinc precipitation.
It is situated on a fine bay and its beautiful sands attract thousands of summer visitors.
C. Sands and W.
By a branch railway, is in favour as a watering-place, having fine sands beneath the cliffs.
Its northern fringe is no doubt frequented by the Bedouin tribes of southern Nejd after the rains, when its sands, like those of the northern desert, produce herbage; but towards the east, according to Burckhardt's information, it is quite without vegetation even in the winter and spring.
The Nafud sands, too, are tufted in many places with bushes or small trees, and after the winter rains they produce excellent pasture.
The invasion under Aelius Gallus was an absolute failure, the expedition being betrayed by the guides and lost in the sands of the desert.
A short distance south of Jauf the character of the desert changes abruptly from a level black expanse of gravel to the red sands of the The Nafud.
Khaibar harra, runs north-eastward across the whole width of Nejd, till it is lost in the sands of the eastern Nafud, north of Aneza.