The grateful perfumed powder abir or rand y is composed either of rice, flour, mango bark or deodar wood, camphor and aniseed, or of sandalwood or wood aloes, and zerumbet, zedoary, rose flowers, camphor and civet.
Besides these are the sandalwood, Santalum, of southern India, and many sorts of bamboo found in all parts of the country.
There are few trees on the island, for most of the valuable indigenous trees have been practically exterminated, such as the sandalwood, which the earlier navigators found one of the most valuable products of the island.
It formerly abounded in sandalwood, and consists of a central plateau surrounded by a belt of cultivation.
They subsequently became known to sealers and traders in sandalwood, who, however, established no friendly relations with the natives.
The export of sandalwood, ponies, cattle, pinang nuts, &c., amounts in a year to only about £8500.
The montes, by which are understood plantations as well as native thickets, produce among other woods the algarrobo, a poor imitation of oak; the guayabo, a substitute for boxwood; the quebracho, of which the red kind is compared to sandalwood; and the urunday, black and white, not unlike rosewood.
There are special manufactures of chauris, or flappers, with handles of sandalwood, ivory or silver, and tails also made of strips of ivory or sandalwood as fine as horse-hair.
The incense sticks and pastils known all over India under the names of ud-buti (" benzoin-light") or aggar-ki-buti (" wood aloes light") are composed of benzoin, wood aloes, sandalwood, rock lichen, patchouli, rose-malloes, talispat (the leaf of Flacourtia Cataphracta of Roxburgh), mastic and sugar-candy or gum.
Forests cover nearly r z million acres, yielding valuable timber (teak, sandalwood, &c.), and affording grazing-ground for cattle.
The discovery of sandalwood in Fiji in 1804, and the establishment of a trade therein, made that group a centre of interest in the early modern history of the Pacific islands.
The German islands have a small trade in sandalwood, tortoise-shell, &c. The total population may be roughly estimated at 180,000.
The most important timber trees are the tu'n (Cedrela Toona), sdl (Shorea robusta), the present area of which forms two belts separated by the Gangetic plain; satin wood (Chloroxylon Swietenia), common in the drier parts of the peninsula; sandalwood, especially characteristic of Mysore; iron-wood (Mesua ferrea), and teak (Tectona grandis).
10, ii), generally identified with sandalwood (Santalum album), a native of Malabar and Malaya; aloes, or lign aloes (Heb.
Lanaiensis), naio or bastard sandalwood (Myoporum sandwicense) and pua (Olea sandwicensis); of these the koaia furnishes a hard wood suitable for the manufacture of furniture, and out of it the natives formerly made spears and fancy paddles.
The wood of the naio when dry has a fragrance resembling that of sandalwood, and is used for torches in fishing.
Sandalwood (Santalum album or freycinetianum) was once abundant on rugged and rather inaccessible heights, but so great a demand arose for it in China,' where it was used for incense and for the manufacture of fancy articles, that the supply was nearly exhausted between 1802 and 1836; since then some young trees have sprung up, but the number is relatively small.
Dutch Timor gives its name to a residency comprising, besides its own territory, the small adjacent islands, Rotti, Peman, &c., the Savu islands, Sumba or Sandalwood island, the Solor and Allor group of islands, and the eastern half of Flores, all lying between 8° 5' and 11° 5' S.
The more rugged districts and higher elevations are clad with such tropical forest trees as ebony, Spanish cedar, sandalwood, rosewood and mahogany.