Maury, however, recognized that in great depths on the " Washington " and by the Austrians on the " Pola " the surest guarantee of bottom having been reached was to bring in 1890-1893, the latter carrying the investigations to the Red up a sample of the deposit.
Thus the magnetization which the sample of Swedish iron received in a field of 1490 was not increased (beyond the limits of experimental error) when the intensity of the field was multiplied more than thirteen-fold, though the induction was nearly doubled.
The sample to be inserted between the magnet poles was prepared in the form of a bobbin resembling an ordinary cotton reel, with a short narrow neck (constituting the " isthmus ") and conical ends.
The specific gravity of any sample of spirits thus determined, when multiplied by ten, gives the weight in pounds per imperial gallon, and the weight of any bulk of spirits divided by this number gives its volume at once in imperial gallons.
In Switzerland secret remedies cannot be advertised without submitting the formula and a sample of the remedy to the board of health.
The total alkali is determined by incinerating a weighed sample in a platinum dish, dissolving the residue in water, filtering and titrating the filtrate with standard acid.
Several pieces of apparatus have been invented for comparing the magnetic quality of a sample with that of a standard iron rod by a zero method, such as is employed in the comparison of electrical resistances by the Wheatstone bridge.
Sample containing 25% of nickel no appreciable change was detected; others containing larger percentages, and tested in fields up to 2000, all exhibited elongation, which tended to an asymptotic value as the field was increased.
They showed that the permeability of this sample of iron was considerably diminished at the lower temperature.
Observations were also made of the changes of permeability which took place as the temperature of the sample slowly rose from - 186° to 15°, the magnetizing force being kept constant throughout an experiment.
Experiments with the sample of unannealed iron failed to give satisfactory results, owing to the fact that no constant magnetic condition could be obtained.
He spliced together all the sounding-lines on board, rightly said that since the days of Columbus and Magellan no and with a weight of 1501b attached he found bottom in 683 such revelation regarding the surface of our planet had been fathoms and secured a sample of fine soft blue mud.
The line is hauled in by a steam or electric winch, and the sounding-tube containing a sample of the bottom deposit is rapidly brought on board.
In all areometer work it is necessary to ascertain the temperature of the water sample under examination with great exactness, as the volume of the areometer as well as the specific gravity of the water varies with temperature.
On this account it is very difficult to know when all the gas is driven out of a sample of sea-water, and a much larger proportion is present than the partial pressure of the gas in the atmosphere and its coefficient of absorption would indicate.
A solution of one part of the carbonate in 12 parts of water is heated to boiling in a cast-iron vessel (industrially by means of steampipes) and the milk of lime added in instalments until a sample of the filtered mixture no longer effervesces with an excess of acid.
The work De mysteriis Aegyptiorum is the best sample of the views and aims of these philosophers.
It will thus be seen that the whole length of the stem corresponds to a difference of density of about 04, and one division to about 00074, indicating a difference of little more than a% in the strength of any sample of spirits.
The line on the scale marked "concentration" indicates the diminution in volume consequent upon reducing the sample to proof strength (if it is over proof, O.P.) or upon reducing proof spirit to the strength of the sample (if it is under proof, U.P.).
The following is suggested as a typical analysis sample of black tea: Albuminous matters Gummy matters.
In April disturbances arose at Dijon, and early in May took place those extraordinary bread-riots known as the" guerre des farines,"which may be looked upon as a first sample of the Revolution, so carefully were they organized.
Specimens of the best known and of many of the lesser known rubbers are included in the Colonial and Indian Collections and Sample Rooms of the Imperial Institute, and many of the authentic specimens have been chemically and technically examined in the Scientific and Technical Department of the Institute and commercially valued.
The Villari critical point for aegiven sample of iron is reached with a smaller magnetizing force when the stretching load is great than when it is small; the reversal also occurs with smaller loads and with weaker fields when the iron is soft than when it is hard.
The first column contains the symbols of the various elements which were added to the iron, and the second the percentage proportion in which each element was present; the sample containing 0.03% of carbon was a specimen of the best commercial iron, the values obtained for it being given for comparison.
Captain Phipps in 1773 secured samples of soft blue clay in this manner from a depth of 683 fathoms, but as a rule when sounding in great depths the sample is washed off the tallow before it can be brought on board.
Buchanan, which has an arbitrary scale and can be varied in weight by placing small metal rings on the stem so as to depress the scale to any desired depth in sea-water of any salinity, the specific gravity being calculated for each reading by dividing the total weight by the immersed volume; (3) the total immersion areometer, which has no scale and the weight of which can be adjusted so that the instrument can be brought so exactly to the specific gravity of the water sample that it remains immersed, neither floating nor sinking; this has the advantage of 'eliminating the effects of surface tension and in Fridtjof Nansen's pattern is capable of great precision.
Sarasin and longer series of experiments by Tornde and Kriimmel this relation is shown to be so close that the salinity of a sample can be ascertained by determining the index of refraction.
The last elaboration of the insulated slip water-bottle by Ekman, Nansen and Pettersson has produced an instrument of great perfection, in which the insulation is effected by layers of water between a series of concentric ebonite cylinders, all of which are closed both above and below when the apparatus encloses a sample, and each of which in turn must be warmed considerably before there is any rise of temperature in the chamber within.
On rich soils the crop is liable to grow too rapidly and yield a"coarse, uneven sample, consequently the best barley is grown on light, open and preferably calcareous soils, while if the condition of the soil is too high it is often reduced by growing wheat before the barley.
The bar was a special sample of cast-iron, the conductivity of which was required for some experiments on the condensation of steam (Proc. Inst.
In one company dinner was ready, and the soldiers were gazing eagerly at the steaming boiler, waiting till the sample, which a quartermaster sergeant was carrying in a wooden bowl to an officer who sat on a log before his shelter, had been tasted.
That the adversaries should produce any sample whatsoever of poetry or rhetoric equal to the Koran is not at all what the Prophet demands.
A large percentage of moisture found in any sample would indicate improper condition.
Sericulture was enjoined under penalties by statute; it was encouraged by bounties and rewards; and its prosecution was stimulated by learned essays and rhapsodical rhymes, of which this is a sample: " Where Wormes and Food doe naturally abound A gallant Silken Trade must there be found.
The quality varies much, as well as the =colour and density; an Italian sample in the museum at Kew (of a very dark red tint) weighs about 241 lb to the cub.
At the side of each of the four scales on the stem of the hydrometer is en r ' graved a set of small numbers indicating the contraction in volume which would be experienced if the requisite amount of water (or spirit) were added to bring the sample tested to the proof strength The hydrometer constructed by Dicas of Liverpool is provided with a sliding scale which FIG.
Wheat well repays careful attention; contrast the produce of a carelessly tilled Russian or Indian field and the bountiful yield on a good Lincolnshire farm, the former with its average yield of 8 bushels, the latter with its 50 bushels per acre; or compare the quality, as regards the quantity and flavour of the flour from a fine sample of British wheat, such as is on sale at almost every agricultural show in Great Britain, with the produce of an Egyptian or Syrian field; the difference is so great as to cause one to doubt whether the berries are of the same species.
The soundings of the Dutch expedition on hung on the sounding-tube that it was automatically released the " Siboga " during1899-1900in the eastern part of the on striking the bottom and left behind, while the light brass tube Malay seas and those of the German surveying ship " Planet " containing a sample of the deposit was easily hauled up. This in 1906 in the South Atlantic, Indian and North Pacific Oceans principle has been adopted universally for deep soundings, and were notable, and Sir John Murray's expedition on the " Michael is now applied in many forms. In 1855 Maury published Sars " in the Atlantic in 1910 obtained important results.
In depths down to ico fathoms the old-fashioned hand-lead, hollow below and " armed " with tallow, suffices to bring up a sample large enough to be recognizable.
On the continent of Europe it has been more usual to take both at 17.5° C. (63.5° F.), which is expressed as " Si 7: ", but for pyknometer work in all countries where the sample is cooled to 32° F.
The exhausted tube, when inserted in the water sample and the tip broken off, immediately fills, and is then sealed up so that the contents cannot change after collection.
The older, devised by Hooke in 1667, is provided with valves above and below, both opening upward, through which the water passes freely during descent, but which are closed by some device on hauling up. The newer or slip water-bottle type consists of a cylinder allowed to drop on to a base-plate when a sample is tro be collected.