Finland and on the Kola peninsula, and the Samoyedes in Archangel and W.
The governments of St Petersburg (apart from the capital), Olonets and Archangel contain an admixture of Karelians, Samoyedes and Syryenians, the remainder being Great Russians.
Agriculture does not exist; the reindeer constitutes the principal wealth of the nomad Samoyedes and Lapps.
Bulldog, bulldog (miniature), mastiff, Great Dane, Newfoundland (black, white and black, or other than black), St Bernard (rough and smooth), Old English sheepdog, collie (rough and smooth), Dalmatian, poodle, bull terrier, white English terrier, black and tan terrier, toy spaniel (King Charles or black and tan, Blenheim, ruby or red and tricolour), Japanese, Pekingese, Yorkshire terrier, Maltese, Italian greyhound, chowchow, black and tan terrier (miniature), Pomeranian, pug (fawn and black), Schipperke, Griffon Bruxellois, foreign dogs (bouledogues frangais, elk-hounds, Eskimos, Lhasa terriers, Samoyedes and any other varieties not mentioned under this heading).
SAMOYEDES, a tribe of the Ural-Altaic group, scattered in small groups over an immense area, from the Altai mountains down the basins of the Ob and Yenisei, and along the shores of the Arctic ocean from the mouth of the latter river to the White Sea.
The tribe may be subdivided into three main groups: (a) The Yuraks in the coast-region from the Yenisei to the White Sea; (b) the Tavghi Samoyedes, between the Yenisei and the Khatanga; (c) the Ostiak Samoyedes, intermingled with Ostiaks, to the S.
The so-called Samoyedes inhabiting the S.
Of the governments of Tomsk and Yeniseisk have been much under Tatar influence and appear to be of a different stock; their sub-groups are the Kamasin Tatars, the Kaibals, the Motors, the Beltirs, the Karagasses and the Samoyedes of the middle Ob.
The proper place of the Samoyedes among the Ural-Altaians is very difficult to determine.
The names assumed by the Samoyedes themselves are Hazovo and Nyanyaz.
The Samoyedes are recognized as having the face more flattened than undoubtedly Finnish stocks; their eyes are narrower, their complexion and hair darker.
It is probable that formerly the Samoyedes occupied the Altai mountains, whence they were driven N.
Russia the Zyrians are still driving the Samoyedes farther N., towards the Arctic coast.
Since the researches of Schrenk it may be regarded as settled that in historical times the Samoyedes were inhabitants of the so-called Ugria in the northern Urals, while Radlov considers that the numberless graves containing remains of the Bronze Period which are scattered throughout W.
The Samoyedes, who now maintain themselves by hunting and fishing on the lower Ob, partly mixed in the S.
The Yalmal peninsula, where they find great facilities for hunting, is especially venerated by the Ob Ostiak Samoyedes, and there they have one of their chief idols, Khese.
The Yurak Samoyedes are courageous and warlike; they offered armed resistance to the Russian invaders, and it is only since the beginning of the century that they have paid tribute.
The exact number of the Ostiak Samoyedes is not known; the Tavghi Samoyedes may number about woo, and the Yuraks, mixed with the former, are estimated at 6000 in Obdorsk (about 150 settled), 5000 in European Russia in the tundras of the Mezen, and about 350 in Yeniseisk.
Samoyedes, who are completely Tatarized, the Beltirs.
The Samoyedes on the Ob in Tomsk may number about 7000; they have adopted the Russian manner of life, but have difficulty in.
The inhabitants of the northern districts - nomad tribes of Samoyedes, Zyryans, Lapps, and the Finnish tribes of Karelians and Chudes - support themselves by fishing and hunting.
But about 1877 systematic attempts at settlement were made by the Russian government, several families of Samoyedes being established at stations on the W.
3 The Finns came to apply to the upper gods the term Yumala which originally denoted the living sky; the Samoyedes made the same use of Num, and the Mongols of Tengri.
The island is visited periodically by a few Samoyedes; they formerly considered it sacred, and some of their sacrificial piles, consisting of drift-wood, deer's horns and the skulls of bears and deer, have been observed by travellers.
In spite of their conversion to Christianity, the Samoyedes still regard these piles with superstition.
The Samoyedes, who are confined to the province of Tobolsk, Tomsk ' See Yadrintsev, Siberia as a Colony (in Russian, 2nd ed., St Petersburg, 1892).