The classical example is the case of Paul of Samosata, bishop of Antioch.
After some previous abortive trials, Paul of Samosata was deposed and excommunicated, in 269, by a great synod of the Antiochene district.
After running south-east through the grandest scenery, and closely approaching the source of the western Tigris, it turns south-west and leaves the mountains a few miles above Samsat (Samosata; altitude, 1500 ft.).
Samsat itself represents the ancient Samosata, the capital of the Seleucid kings of Commagene (Kuinukh of the Assyrian inscriptions), and here the Persian Royal Road from Sardis to Susa is supposed to have crossed the river.
Here they are in line with non-Christian writers or culture-mockers like Lucian of Samosata; or graver spirits like Porphyry, who champions Neo-Platonism as a rival to Christianity, and does pioneer work in criticism by attacks on some of the Old Testament books.
Marash); in the second the ancient Samosata (mod.
Theodotus was excommunicated by the bishop of Rome, Victor, c. 195, but his followers lived on under a younger teacher of the same name and under Artemon, while in the East similar views were expounded by Beryllus of Bostra and Paul of Samosata, who undoubtedly influenced Lucian of Antioch and his school, including Arius and, later, Nestorius.
There are also accounts of martyrdoms at Samosata (Assemani, Acta Mart.
The teaching of Apollinarius that in Christ the Divine Word took the place of the human rational soul, thus seeming to do away with his possession of a true humanity, had led to a reaction by Paul of Samosata, Diodore of Tarsus, Theodore of Mopsuestia, and Nestorius of Constantinople.
The Paulicians were, according to Esc., Manicheans, so called after Paul of Samosata, son of a Manichean woman Callinice.
"Paulicians from a certain Paul of Samosata," says Esc. "Here then you see the Paulicians, who got their poison from Paul of Samosata," says Gregory Magistros.
Samsat (Samosata); sculptured stela with incised inscription much defaced.
264-265), which investigated and condemned the heresies of Paul of Samosata; and the rapid spread in Pontus of a Trinitarianism approaching the Nicene type is attributed in large measure to the weight of his influence.
During these two years he was successful in maintaining his ground, both against the Mahommedan powers by which he was surrounded, and from which he won Samosata and Seruj (Sarorgia), and against a conspiracy of his own subjects in 1098.
He concludes that the Roman Creed was accepted at Antioch after the fall of Paul of Samosata in A.D.
From the days of Ignatius, down through Paul of Samosata and Lucian to the 'great controversies of the 5th century which began with the theories of Apollinarius, the theologians of Antioch started from the one sure fact, that 1 Coptic Life of Dioscurus (Rev. Egyptologique, 1880-1883).
About the year 260 it was again propounded within the Church by Paul of Samosata, who held that, by his unique excellency, the man Jesus gradually rose to the Divine dignity, so as to be worthy of the name of God.
They had accepted the teaching of Paul of Samosata, though at a later period the name of Paul was believed to be that of the Apostle; and they were not quite free from the Dualistic principle of the Gnostics, at a later period too much identified with the teaching of Mani.
The latter was a follower of Paul of Samosata, bishop of Antioch, who had been excommunicated in 269, but his theology differed from that of his master in a fundamental point.
Measured on the Euphrates, this would be from the place where the river, having bored its way through the rocks, issues on to the high plain a little above Samsat (Samosata) only 1 500 ft.
10 (2) Probably the modern route from Samosata eastwards behind the Karaja Dagh to Diarbekr was also well known.
3 This is seen in the Greek names which now appear: such are Seleucia opposite Samosata, Apamea (= Birejik) opposite 'Zeugma, Hierapolis (= Membij), Europos, Nicatoris, Amphipolis (= Thapsacus, or near it), Nicephorium (er-Rakka,) Zenodotium (stormed by Crassus), all on or by the Euphrates; Edessa (q.v.) on the upper waters of the Belikh, Ichnae (perhaps Khnes, above the junction of the Qaramuch with the Belikh).
PAUL OF SAMOSATA, patriarch of Antioch (260-272), was, if we may credit the encyclical letter of his ecclesiastical opponents preserved in Eusebius's History, bk.
He was certainly born farther east at Samosata, and may have owed his promotion in the Church to Zenobia, queen of Palmyra.
Paul of Samosata represented the high-water mark of Christian speculation; and it is deplorable that the fanaticism of his own and of succeeding generations has left us nothing but a few scattered fragments of his writings.
The case of Paul of Samosata, c. 265, and the Synod of Ancyra in Galatia, c. 314).
Beginning with three synods convened between 264 and 269 in the matter of Paul of Samosata, more than thirty councils were held in Antioch in ancient times.
Among the traditions relating to Zenobia may be mentioned that of her discussions with the Archbishop Paul of Samosata on matters of religion.
During the troubles of the Caliphate the Byzantines had made great advances; they had even taken Malatia and Samosata (Samsat).
Asiaticus, made peace on advantageous terms with Pompey in 64 B.C. Subsequently he fought on Pompey's side in the Civil War, and later still repelled an attack on Samosata by Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony.) He died before 31 B.C. and was succeeded by one Mithradates I.
SAMOSATA (Eaµovara, -arcov, Ptol.
Armenier, 1898, 13); but no cuneiform text referring to Samosata by name seems yet to have been published.
In consequence of revolt it was made an Assyrian province in 708 B.C. When the Assyrian empire passed through the hands of Babylon and Persia into those of the successors of Alexander, Samosata was the capital of Kummukh, called in Greek Commagene.
The dynasty of Iranian origin which ruled at Samosata, described by Strabo (l.c.) as a fortified city in a very fertile if not extensive district, allied itself with the Seleucids, and bore the dynastic name of Antiochus.
Under Constantine Samosata gave place as capital of Euphratensis to Hierapolis (Malal.
It was at Samosata that Julian had ships made in his expedition against Sapor, and it was a natural crossing-place in the struggle between Heraclius and Chosroes in the 7th century.
Lucian of Samosata achieved a brilliant success with his ironic dialogues "Of the Gods," "Of the Dead," "Of Love" and "Of the Courtesans."
He appears in connexion with the dispute in the church of Antioch between Paul of Samosata, who had been deprived of his bishopric by a council of bishops for heresy, and his successor Domnus.
Most probably its people belonged to the domain of the then more famous Harran-Carrhae, between which and Samosata (on the Euphrates) Urhai lies midway (some 25-30 m.
At such times, therefore, it included such towns as Harran (Carrhae), Nisibis, Sarug, Zeugma-Birejik, Resaena, Singara, Tigranocerta, Samosata, Melitene.
Diocletian's persecution secured the martyr's crown for the Edessenes Shamona, Guria (297), and Ilabbib (309), and shortly thereafter Lucian " the martyr," who though born at Samosata received his training at Edessa; but the bishop Qona, who laid the foundations of " the great church " by the sacred pool, somehow escaped.
Thoros applied for help to Baldwin, brother and successor of Godfrey of Bouillon in the First Crusade, who in 1098 took possession of the town and made it the capital of a Burgundian countship, which included Samosata and Sari-1g, and was for half a century the eastern bulwark of the kingdom of Jerusalem.'