Fabricius afterwards gained a series of victories over the Samnites, the Lucanians and the Bruttians, and on his return to Rome received the honour of a triumph.
In 313 B.C. it was taken by the Samnites and recaptured by the dictator Q.
Fabius; the Samnites captured it again in 311, but it must have been retaken at an unknown date.
Samnites on the S., the Hernici on the E., and stretching roughly from Norba and Cora in the N.
This phenomenon of what might have been taken for a piece of Umbrian text appearing in a district remote from Umbria and hemmed in by Latins on the north and Oscan-speaking Samnites on the south is a most curious feature in the geographical distribution of the Italic dialects, and is clearly the result of some complex historical movements.
C.; and many of whom were conquered by the Samnites about a century or more earlier.
It was the chief town of the Samnites, who took refuge here after their defeat by the Romans in 314 B.C. It appears not to have fallen into the hands of the latter until Pyrrhus's absence in Sicily, but served them as a base of operations in the last campaign against him in 275 B.C. A Latin colony was planted there in 268 B.C., and it was then that the name was changed for the sake of the omen, and probably then that the Via Appia was extended from Capua to Beneventum.
This presents a strong contrast to the evidence of tradition, which asserts very strongly (I) the identity of the Sabines and Samnites; (2) the conquest of an earlier population by this tribe; and which affords (ci) clear evidence of the identity of the Sabines with the ruling class, i.e.
The fourth region comprised all the Samnites (except the Hirpini), together with the Sabines and the cognate tribes of the Frentani, Marrucini, Marsi, Peligni, Vestini and Aequiculi.
Of the Italian peoples Rome's old foes the Samnites were the most formidable; these Sulla vanquished, and took their chief town, Bovianum.
Only the Samnites, who were as yet without the Roman franchise, remained his enemies, and it seemed as if the old war between Rome and Samnium had to be fought once again.
They joined the Samnites in 308 B.C. (Liv.
Alife), a town of the Samnites, 15 m.
These last were chosen from the most warlike races - as the Samnites, Gauls and Thracians.
In the Second Punic War it thrice bade defiance to Hannibal; but in the Social War it was betrayed into the hands of the Samnites, who kept possession till Marius, with whom they had sided, was defeated by Sulla, who in 80 B.C. subjected it with the rest of Samnium.
In his various campaigns he defeated successively the Gauls, the Volscians, the Samnites, the Etruscans and the Marsians.
His most important victory (343) was over the Samnites at Mount Gaurus.
Of Tarracina, and the Via Appia then traversed the pass of Lautulae, between the mountains and the Lake of Fondi, where the Samnites defeated the Romans with loss in 315 B.C. This pass, the frontier between the Papal States and the kingdom of Naples, was also fortified in modern days.
Of Syracuse; Etruria Circumpadana was occupied by the Gauls, the Campanian cities by the Samnites, who took Capua (see Campania) in 423, and in 396, after a ten years' siege, Veii fell to the Romans.
Arpino occupies the lower part of the site of the ancient Volscian town of Arpinum, which was finally taken from the Samnites by the Romans in 305 B.C. It became a civitas sine suffragio, but received full privileges (civitas cum suffragio) in 188 B.C. with Formiae and Fundi; it was governed as a praefectura until the Social War, and then became a municipium.
In Umbria near Camerinum), a battle occurred in 296 B.C. between the Gauls and Samnites combined, and the Romans; a little later the united forces of Clusium and Perusia were defeated by the Romans.
In 2 9 8 he was interrex; in 296, as consul, he led the army in Samnium, and although, with his colleague, he gained a victory over the Etruscans and Samnites, he does not seem to have specially distinguished himself as a soldier (Livy x.
The country never recovered from these disasters, and under the Roman government fell into decay, to which the Social War, in which the Lucanians took part with the Samnites against Rome (90-88 B.C.) gave the finishing stroke.
327 M.) that the Sabines were the parent stock of the Samnites, and this is directly confirmed by the name which the Samnites apparently used for themselves, which, with a Latinized ending, would be Safini (see Samnites and the other articles there cited, dealing with the minor Samnite tribes).
(2) The language of the Samnites was that which we now call Oscan (see Osca Lingua).
The conclusion, therefore, to which the evidence appears to lead us is that in, say, the 7th century, B.C., the Safines spoke a language not differing in any important particulars from that of the Samnites, generally known as Oscan; and that when this warlike tribe combined with the people of the Latian plain to found or fortify or enlarge the city of Rome, and at the end of the 6th century to drive out from it the Etruscans, who had in that century become its masters, they imposed upon the new community many of their own usages, especially within the sphere of politics, but in the end adopted the language of Latium henceforth known as lingua Latina, just as the Normans adopted the language of the conquered English.
It was captured by the Samnites in the Social War.
After the dissolution of the Latin league which followed upon the defeat of the united forces of the Samnites and of those Latin and Volscian cities which had revolted against Rome, two new tribes, Maecia and Scaptia, 3 were created in 332 B.C. in connexion with the distribution of the newly acquired lands (Mommsen, History, i.
But its name is only once mentioned during the wars of the Romans with the Samnites and Campanians in this region of Italy, and then only incidentally (Liv.
Gauls, Samnites, Tyrrhenians, fought for him, while mercenary Greeks and Syracusan exiles fought for Carthage.
On the submission of the Samnites they all came into alliance with Rome in 305-302 B.C. (Liv.
These terms, which are said by Appian (De Rebus Samniticis, 10, II) to have included the freedom of the Greeks in Italy and the restoration to the Bruttians, Apulians and Samnites of all that had been taken from them, were rejected chiefly through the vehement and patriotic speech of the aged Appius Claudius Caecus the censor.
It was devastated by the Samnites, was one of the 12 Latin colonies that refused in 209 B.C. to provide more soldiers, and was in 186 used as a state prison, like Alba and Setia.
AUFIDENA, an ancient city of the Samnites Caraceni, the site of which is just north of the modern Alfedena, 1 Italy, a station on the railway between Sulmona and Isernia, 37 m.
DENTATUS, MANIUS CURIUS, Roman general, conqueror of the Samnites and Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, was born of humble parents, and was possibly of Sabine origin.
Except that he was tribune of the people, nothing certain is known of him until his first consulship in 290 B.C. when, in conjunction with his colleague P. Cornelius Rufinus, he gained a decisive victory over the Samnites, which put an end to a war that had lasted fifty years.
Dentatus was consul for the third time in 274, when he finally crushed the Lucanians and Samnites, and censor in 272: In the latter capacity he began to build an aqueduct to carry the waters of the Anio into the city, but died (270) before its completion.
According to the well-known anecdote, when the Samnites sent ambassadors with costly presents to induce him to exercise his influence on their behalf in the senate, they found A n FIG.
35), but his accounts of the Roman campaigns against Volsci, Aequi and Samnites swarm with confusions and difficulties; nor are even his descriptions of Hannibal's movements free from an occasional vagueness which betrays the absence of an exact knowledge of localities.
He gained considerable successes and made an arrangement with the Romans for a joint attack upon the Samnites; but the Tarentines, suspecting him of the design of founding an independent kingdom, turned against him.
Her temple at Rome, dedicated by Appius Claudius Caecus (296 B.C.) during a battle with the Samnites and Etruscans (Ovid, Fasti vi.
As a protection against the Samnites Arpi became an ally of Rome, and remained faithful until after the battle of Cannae, but Fabius captured it in 213 B.C., and it never recovered its former importance.