Small sailing craft navigate upwards as far as Samarra; above this all navigation is downward, and by raft.
Of these canals the best known, and probably the greatest, was the Nahrawan, which, leaving the Tigris, on its eastern side, above Samarra, over loo m.
A little south of Samarra the stony plateau of Mesopotamia ends, and the alluvial plain of Irak, ancient Babylonia, begins.
Son of Ardashir I., formerly important, but now relatively insignificant; Samarra, also called Samira, the capital of the caliphate from A.D.
A little south of Samarra are found remains of the Median Wall, which stretched south-west towards the Euphrates near Sahlawych, marking the edge of the Babylonian alluvial plain.
Above Bagdad there are no steamers on the Tigris, but sailing vessels of 30 tons and more navigate the river to Samarra and beyond.
Between the Euphrates and the Arabian plateau lie the sacred cities of Kerbela or Meshed-Hosain, and Nejef or Meshed Ali, with a population of 20,000 to 60,000 each, while a number of towns, varying in population from 3000 to 10,000, are found along the Euphrates (Anah, Hit, Ramadieh, Musseyib, Hilla, Diwanieh and Samawa) and the Tigris (Tekrit, Samarra and Kut elAmara).
At that date this disease was stamped out by energetic measures on the part of the government, but it has reappeared again in recent years, introduced apparently from India or Persia by pilgrims. There are four great centres of pilgrimage for Shiite Moslems in the vilayet, Samarra, Kazemain, a suburb of Bagdad, Kerbela and Nejef.
Having bought in 834 territories at Samarra, a small place situated a few leagues above Bagdad, he caused a new residence to be built there, whose name, which could be interpreted "Unhappy is he who sees it," was changed by him into Sorra-man-ra`a, "Rejoiced is he who sees it."
He was carried to Samarra, led through the city on the back of an elephant, and then delivered to the executioners, who cut off his arms and legs.
I.) Motasim had just returned to Samarra when a serious revolt broke out in Tabaristan, Maziyar, one of the hereditary chiefs of that country, refusing to acknowledge the authority ofAbdallah Ibn Tahir, the governor of Khorasan, of which Tabaristan was a province.
When he reached Samarra with his prisoners, Wathiq had just died (August 846).
In his days the soldiery at Samarra was increased by a large division of Africans (Maghribis).
In the year 848-849 Ibn Ba`ith, who had rendered good service in the war against Babak, but had for some cause been arrested, fled from Samarra to Marand in Azerbaijan and revolted.
The caliph sent against them Mahommed al-Qommi, who subdued them in 856 and brought their king Ali Baba to Samarra before Motawakkil, on condition that he should be restored to his kingdom.
But the place did not agree with him, and he returned to Samarra, where he caused a magnificent quarter to be built 3 m.
On the news of the conspiracy against Motazz, Musa, the son of the famous general Bogha, 1 then governor of Media (Jabal), ordered his deputy-general Moflih to return at once from a proposed invasion of Dailam, and moved with his army towards Samarra, notwithstanding the peremptory orders of the caliph.
Motamid's flight was stopped by his vizier Ibn Makhlad, and the caliph himself was reconducted to Samarra as a prisoner in the year 882.