Under the Tahirids (820-872) it became a flourishing town and rose to great importance during the Samanids (874-999).
Avicenna's chief reward for this service was access to the royal library of the Samanids (q.v.), well-known patrons of scholarship and scholars.
Samanids, the first great native dynasty which sprang up in the 9th century in E.
Of these Ahmad and his second son Isma`il overthrew the Saffarids (q.v.) and the Zaidites of Tabaristan; and thus the Samanids established themselves with the sanction of the caliph Motamid in their capital Bokhara.
Nub II., in order to retain at least a nominal sway over those Afghan territories, confirmed him in his high position and even invested Sabuktagin's son Mahmud with the governorship of Khorasan, in reward for the powerful help they had given him in his desperate struggles with a confederation of disaffected nobles of Bokhara under the leadership of Fa'iq and the troops of the Dailamites, a dynasty that had arisen on the shores of the Caspian Sea and wrested already from the hands of the Samanids all their western provinces.
Under the Tahirids of Khorasan, the Saffarids of Seistan and the Samanids of Bokhara, it flourished for some centuries in peace and progressive prosperity; but during the succeeding rule of the Ghaznevid kings its metropolitan character was for a time obscured by the celebrity of the neighbouring capital of Ghazni, until finally in the reign of Sultan Sanjar of Mer y about 1157 the city was entirely destroyed by an irruption of the Ghuzz, the predecessors, in race as well as in habitat, of the modern Turkomans.
The Samanids had been governors of Transoxiana from the time of Mamun, and after the fall of the Tahirids, had been confirmed in this office by the caliph.
Buya, the chief of a clan of the Dailam, a warlike people who inhabit the mountainous country south-west of the Caspian Sea, had served under the Samanids, and found a footing in the south of Media (Jabal), whence his three sons - well known under the titles they assumed at a later period: `Imad addaula ("prop of the dynasty"), Rokn addaula ("pillar of the dynasty"), and Mo`izz addaula ("strengthener of the dynasty") - succeeded in subduing the province of Fars, at the time of Qahir's dethronement (see Persia: History).
The empire was by this time practically reduced to the province of Bagdad; Khorasan and Transoxiana were in the hands of the Samanids, Fars in those of the Buyids; Kirman and Media were under independent sovereigns; the Hamdanids possessed Mesopotamia; the Sajids Armenia and Azerbaijan; the Ikshidites Egypt; as we have seen, the Fatimites Africa, the Carmathians Arabia.
961) a Turkish general of the Samanids had founded for himself a principality in Ghazni, and at his death in 366 (A.D.
999) Ilek-khan, the prince of Turkistan, took Bokhara and made an end to the glorious state of the Samanids, the last prince of which was murdered in 395 (A.D.
The Samanids had long been a rampart of the Caliphate against the Turks, whom they held under firm control.
Nal dynasty under the Samanids (9001229).
The Samanids (qz.) were the first really important nonArabic Persian dynasty since the fall of Yazdegerd III.
He had successively fought for the Samanids and the Ziyarids,3 a dynasty of Jorjan, and his son Imad addaula (ed-dowleh, originally Abu 1 Uasan Au) received from Mardawij of the latter house the governorship of Karaj; his second son Rokn addaula (Abu All Uasan) subsequently held Rai and Isfahan, while the third, Moizz addaula (Abu 1 Ilosain Ahmad) secured KermAn, Ahvaz and even Bagdad.
They were of progressively less importance under the Samanids, and were ultimately expelled by the Ghaznevids.
In the meantime (999) the Samanids fell before the Ilek-Khans of Turkestan, to the great advantage of the Ghaznevid princes.
The Samanids then fell under the power of the Tatar Ilkhans, but Mahmud returned, triumphed over both the Samanids and the Tatars, and assumed the independent title of sultan with authority over Khorasan, Transoxiana and parts of north-west India.
The real rulers of Persia during the years 8741231 were, as we have seen, the Samanids, the Buyids, the Ghaznevids, the Seljuks, the Salgharids and the Khwarizm shahs.
Under the Samanids (see above).