Matthias consolidated his position by alliances with the dukes of Saxony and Bavaria, with the Swiss Confederation, and the archbishop of Salzburg, and was henceforth the greatest potentate in central Europe.
The House of Habsburg now ceded Salzburg and the Inn-Viertel to Napoleon (for his ally, the king of Bavaria); a great portion of the spoils which Austria had torn from Poland in 1795 went to the grand duchy of Warsaw, or Russia; and the cession of her provinces Carinthia, Carniola and Istria to the French empire cut her off from all access to the sea.
By Styria and Salzburg, W.
On his return he organized the church in Bavaria into the four bishoprics of Regensburg, Freising, Salzburg and Passau.
Then came a theological and disciplinary controversy with Virgil, the Irish bishop of Salzburg, who held, among other heresies, that there were other worlds than ours.
Pope Zachary, when in 741 he condemned the views of Virgilius, the learned bishop of Salzburg, an Irishman who had been denounced as a heretic by St Boniface, declares it to be perversa et iniqua doctrina.
The catacombs ' The most important of these lists are the two Itineraries belonging to the first half of the 7th century, in the Salzburg library.
On the 23rd of May she left Coppet almost secretly, and journeyed by Bern, Innsbruck and Salzburg to Vienna.
By Salzburg and Styria, and E.
His treatises De mensura astrolabii and De utilitatibus astrolabii (to be found, on the authority of Salzburg MSS., in Pez, Thesaurus anecdotorum novissimus, iii.) being the first contributions of moment furnished by a European to this subject, Hermann was for a time considered the inventor of the astrolabe.
This measure provided for the construction of a railway over the Tauern Mountains between Schwarzach in Salzburg and Mollbriicken in Carinthia; and of a railway over the Karawanken between Trieste and Klagenfurt, with a branch to Villach.
By the new line the distance between Salzburg, for instance, and Trieste, is lessened by 160 m.
By Carinthia and Salzburg, and N.
Angle of the duchy of Upper Austria situated between Salzburg and Styria.
Ecclesiastically, Tirol is ruled by the archbishop of Salzburg and his two suffragans, the bishops of Trent and of Brixen.
Locally it is ruled by an Imperial governor (the Statthalter) who resides at Innsbruck, where, too, meets annually the local legislature or Diet (the Landtag), composed (according to the constitution of 1861) of 68 members; the archbishop of Salzburg, the bishops of Trent and Brixen, and the rector of the university of Innsbruck sit in person, while the great ecclesiastical corporations send four deputies, the chambers of commerce of Innsbruck, Trent and Rovereto each one, the nobles ten, the towns 13, and the peasants 34.
These included Ferdinand, duke of Austria, the two dukes of Bavaria, the archbishops of Salzburg and Trent, the bishops of Bamberg, Spires, Strassburg and others.
His younger brother, JOHANN MICHAEL HAYDN (1737-1806), was also a chorister at St Stephen's, and shortly after leaving the choir-school was appointed Kapellmeister at Grosswardein (1755) and at Salzburg (1762).
ARNO, ARN or Aquila (c. 750-821), bishop and afterwards archbishop of Salzburg, entered the church at an early age, and after passing some time at Freising became abbot of Elnon, or St Amand as it was afterwards called, where he made the acquaintance of Alcuin.
In 785 he was made bishop of Salzburg and, in 787 was employed by Tassilo III., duke of the Bavarians, as an envoy to Charlemagne at Rome.
He appears to have attracted the notice of the Frankish king, through whose influence in 798 Salzburg was made the seat of an archbishopric; and Arno, as the first holder of this office, became metropolitan of Bavaria and received the pallium from Pope Leo III.
He established a library at Salzburg, furthered in other ways the interests of learning, and presided over several synods called to improve the condition of the church in Bavaria.
Many other works were produced under the protection of Arno, among them a Salzburg consuetudinary, an edition of which appears in Quellen and Erarterungen zur bayrischen and deutschen Geschichte, Band vii., edited by L.
In lieu of the sovereignty of Tuscany, he obtained in 1802 the electorship of Salzburg, which he exchanged by the peace of Pressburg in 1805 for that of Wiirzburg.
(in the Archivio Storico Italiano, 1877); Emmer, Erzherzog Ferdinand III., Grossherzog von Toskana (Salzburg, 1871); C. Tivaroni, L' Italia durante it dominio francese, ii.
SALZBURG, a duchy and crownland of Austria, bounded E.
The region of the limestone Alps is composed of several detached groups: a portion of the Kitzbiihler Alps, which contain the famous Thurn pass (4183 ft.); then the Salzburg Alps, which contain the Loferer Steinberge and the peak Birnhorn (8637 ft.); the Reitalm or the Reiteralpe with the peak Stadelhorn (7495 ft.); and the broad mass of the SchOnfeldspitze (8708 ft.), from which the great glacier-covered block of the Ewiger Schnee, or tbergossene Alps projects into the Salzach valley.
The principal river of Salzburg is the Salzach.
The Mond-see (1560 ft.) and Aber-see, or Lake St Wolfgang, are on the frontier between Salzburg and Upper Austria.
.The annual mean temperature at Salzburg is 46°.
Although 13.71% of the soil is unproductive and 32.4% is covered with forests, Salzburg is one of the principal pastoral regions of Austria.
The mineral wealth of Salzburg includes salt at Hallein, copper at Mitterberg, iron-ore at Werfen, marble in the Untersberg region and small quantities of gold near the Goldberg in the Rauris valley and at Bockstein in the Gastein valley.
The duchy is divided into six departments, of which the capital, Salzburg, is one and its environs the second.
Salzburg, Austria (Capital) >>
In 1511 he was made a cardinal by Pope Julius ., II., and in 1514 he became coadjutor to the archbishop of Salzburg, whom he succeeded in 1519.
Lang's adherence to the older faith, together with his pride and arrogance, made him very unpopular in his diocese of Salzburg; in 1523 he was involved in a serious struggle with his subjects, and in 1525, during the Peasants' War, he had again to fight hard to hold his own.
Little more is known of his life than that he resided successively in Vienna, Salzburg, Frankfurt and Cologne before settling in Holland, where he made his living chiefly by the sale of secret chemical and medicinal preparations.
To the west the limit will then be the Col de Tenda (6145 ft.), leading from Cuneo (Coni) to Ventimiglia, while on the east our line will be the route over the Radstadter Tauern (5702 ft.) and the Katschberg (5384 ft.) from Salzburg to Villach in Carinthia, and thence by Klagenfurt to Marburg and so past Laibach in Carniola on to Trieste; from Villach the direct route to Trieste would be over the Predil Pass (3813 ft.) or the Pontebba or Saifnitz Pass (2615 ft.), more to the west, but in either case this would exclude the Terglou (9400 ft.), the highest summit of the entire South-Eastern Alps, as well as its lower neighbours.
On the northern side the Alps (in whichever sense we take this term) are definitely bounded by the course of the Rhine from Basel to the Lake of Constance, the plain of Bavaria, and the low region of foot-hills that extend from Salzburg to the neighbourhood of Vienna.
The Alps of Bavaria, the Vorarlberg and Salzburg (north of the Arlberg Pass, Innsbruck, the Pinzgau, and the Enns valley).
In 1797 they obtained Venetia proper, in 1803 the secularized bishoprics of Trent and Brixen (as well as that of Salzburg, more to the north), besides the Valtellina region, and in 1815 the Bergamasque valleys, while the Milanese had belonged to them since 1535.
C. von Schwarzenberg, archbishop of Salzburg (1809-1885), Valentine Stanig (1774-1847), Adolf Schaubach (1800-1850), above all, P. J.
The 8th century witnessed in deed a heathen reaction; but it was checked by the arrival in Bavaria about 734 of St Boniface, who organized the Bavarian church and founded or restored bishoprics at Salzburg, Freising, Regensburg and Passau.
The neighbouring duchy of Carinthia, the great temporal possessions of the archbishop of Salzburg, as well as a general tendency to independence on the part of both clerical and lay nobles, were additional forces of similar influence.
On the other hand Wurzburg, obtained in 1803, was to be ceded by Bavaria to the elector of Salzburg in exchange for Tirol.
In 1809 Bavaria was again engaged in war with Austria on the side of France, and by the treaty signed at Paris on the 28th of February 1810 ceded southern Tirol to Italy and some small districts to Wurttemberg, receiving as compensation parts of Salzburg, the quarters of the Inn and Hausruck and the principalities of Bayreuth and Regensburg.
Vienna it was decided that she was to add to these the greater part of Salzburg and the quarters of the Inn and Hausruck, receiving as compensation, besides Wurzburg and Aschaffenburg, the Palatinate on the left bank of the Rhine and certain districts of Hesse and of the former abbacy of Fulda.
Luber (Salzburg, 1885) and G.
In this way he spent some dozen years, till 1541, when he was invited by Archbishop Ernst to settle at Salzburg, under his protection.
His jurisdiction embraced the territories occupied by the five ancient German tribes, and included the five archbishoprics of Mainz, Treves (Trier), Cologne, Salzburg and Bremen.
He was fully occupied in restoring order in Saxony, in the diocese of Salzburg and elsewhere; in adding to his hereditary lands; in negotiating for a better understanding with France and England; and in reminding the vassal states, Hungary, Poland and Bohemia, of their duties towards the Empire.
Thus these quarrels terminated in victories for the Roman Catholics, who were successful about thil time in restoring their faith in the bishoprics of WUrzburg, Salzburg, Bamberg, Paderborn, Minden and Osnabruck.
While Prussia was thus established on the Rhine, Austria, by exchanging the Netherlands for LombardoVenetia and abandoning her claims to the former Habsburg possessions in Swabia, definitively resigned to Prussia the task of defending the western frontier of Germany, while she strengthened her power in the south-east by recovering from Bavaria, Salzburg, Vorarlberg and Tirol.
Its northern range in Europe does not seem to have extended farther than the southern frontier of Bavaria, or the neighbourhood of Salzburg; 1 but in Asia it formerly reached a higher latitude, having been found even so lately as 1830 in the Amur region where, according to G.
Salzburg, Austria (Duchy) >>
Meanwhile the old system of provincial diets and estates was continued or revived (in 1816 in Tirol and Vorarlberg, 1817 in Galicia, 1818 in Carniola, 1828 in the circle of Salzburg), but they were in no sense representative, clergy and nobles alone being eligible, with a few delegates from the towns, and they had practically no functions beyond registering the imperial decrees, relative to recruiting or taxation, and dealing with matters of local police.
By the treaty of Prague (August 23, 1866) the emperor surrendered the position in Germany which his ancestors had held for so many centuries; Austria and Tirol, Bohemia and Salzburg, ceased to be German, and eight million Germans were cut off from all political union with their fellow-countrymen.
The acts were accepted in Austria out of necessity; but no Prussian government regarding the position of the South German states; a close friendship was maintained with France; there were meetings of the emperor and of Napoleon at Salzburg in 1868, and the next year at Paris; the death of Maximilian in Mexico cast a shadow over the friendship, but did not destroy it.
This constitution had failed; territories so different in size, history and circumstances were not contented with similar institutions, and a form of self-government which satisfied Lower Austria and Salzburg did not satisfy Galicia and Bohemia..
The kernel of the empire was the purely German district, including Upper and Lower Austria, Salzburg, Tirol (except the south) and Vorarlberg,.
In addition to the canals, the cabinet proposed and the Chamber sanctioned the construction of a " second railway route to Trieste " designed to shorten the distance between South Germany, Salzburg and the Adriatic, by means of a line passing under the Alpine ranges of central and southern Austria.
During the time that he was crown prince Louis resided chiefly at Innsbruck or Salzburg as governor of the circle of the Inn and Salzach.
There is more than one meaning of Salzburg discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.