Alfred the Great, king of the Salons in England, not only educated his people in the learning of the past ages; he inserted in the geographical works he translated many narratives of the travel of his own time.
Developed by extensive study at the Sorbonne and by frequenting the salons of the Encyclopaedists.
His conversational powers made him welcome in Parisian salons, but his zeal led, him to England, where he made the acquaintance of William Law, the English mystic, to Italy and to Switzerland, as well as to the chief towns of France.
And the salons of Mme de Sevigne, of her daughter Mme de Grignan, and of the duchesse de Maine for a while gave the questions of philosophy a place among the topics of polite society, and furnished to Moliere the occasion of his Femmes savantes.
In Paris he frequented the salons, especially those of Mme Graffigny - whose niece, Mlle de Ligniville ("Minette"), afterwards Mme Helvetius and his lifelong friend, he is supposed at one time to have wished to marry - Mme Geoffrin, Mme du Deffand, Mlle de Lespinasse and the duchesse d'Enville.
Moreover, the commerce des bles had been a favourite topic of the salons for some years past, and the witty Galiani, the opponent of the physiocrats, had a large following.
Her father was the famous financier Necker, her mother Suzanne Curchod, almost equally famous as the early love of Gibbon, as the wife of Necker himself, and as the mistress of one of the most popular salons of Paris.
But before taking further steps he retired to Versailles, then a hunting lodge, and there, listening to two of Richelieu's friends, Claude de Saint-Simon, father of the memoir writer, and Cardinal La Valette, sent for Richelieu in the evening, and while the salons of the Luxembourg were full of expectant courtiers the king was reassuring the cardinal of his continued favour and support.
The 18th century was a brilliant period for the city; it became the seat of a bishopric, its streets were improved, its commerce developed, and an academy of science and letters founded; while its literary salons were hardly less celebrated than those of Paris.
In frequenting the salons of her friends the queen not only came in contact with a number of the younger and more dissipated courtiers, whose high play and unseemly amusements she countenanced, but she fell under the influence of various ambitious intriguers, such as the baron de Besenval, the comte de Vaudreuil, the duc de Lauzun and the comte d'Adhemar, whose interested manoeuvres she was induced to further by her affection for her favourites.
" Franklin's appearance in the French salons, even before he began to negotiate," says Friedrich Christoph Schlosser, " was an event of great importance to the whole of Europe..
He went back to his music-copying, but the salons of the day were determined to have his society, and for a time they had it.
He was generally known as the Pest Alcibiades, and was especially at home in the salons of the Protestant magnates.
These- L'Histoire du stathouderat (The Hague, 1748), L'Histoire du parlement d'Angleterre (London, 1748), Anecdotes historiques (Amsterdam, 3 vols., 1 753) - gained for him access to the salons of Mme.
Roman literature, faithfully reflecting the sentiments of the aristocratic salons of the capital, while it almost canonized those who had been his victims, fully avenged their wrongs by painting Nero as a monster of wickedness.
In Paris he frequented the salons of Madame de la Fayette and of the marquise de Lambert.
Neither the witty and lucid form in which the philosophers clothed their ideas in their satires, romances, stage-plays and treatises, nor the salons of Madame du Deffand, Madame Geoffrin and Mademoiselle de Lespinasse, could possibly have been sufficiently far-reaching or active centres of political propaganda.
The principle of examination, the reasoned analysis of human conditions and the discussion of causes, far from culminating in disillusioned nihilism, everywhere aroused the democratic spirit, the life of sentiment and of human feeling: in the drama, with Marivaux, Diderot and La Chausse; in art, with Chardin and Greuze; and in the salons, in view of the suppression of privilege.
These muscadins and incroyables, led by Frron, Tallien and Barrasformer revolutionists who had become aristocratsprofited by the restored liberty of the press to prepare for days of battle in the salons of the merveilleuses Madame Tallien, Madame de Stael and Madame Rca.mier, as the sans-culottes had formerly done in the clubs.
The pomp and luxury of the nouveaux riches were displayed in the salons of the good Josephine, the beautiful Madame Tallien, and the divine Juliette Rcamier.
All this time he was no mere book-worm or recluse, but was haunting the salons of Mlle de Scudery and the studios of painters; nor did his scientific researches interfere with his classical studies, for during this time he was discussing with Bochart the origin of certain medals, and was learning Syriac and Arabic under the Jesuit Parvilliers.
That life of the salons is unchanging.