After the Russian collapse most of the survivors were gradually drafted through Murmansk, England and France to the Salonika front: one brigade was cut off by the Bolshevik Revolution and had to be evacuated through Siberia.
He entered the Turkish army as a subaltern with - out money or influence but gained admission to the staff college at Constantinople, and from there went to Salonika, the head - quarters of the Young Turk movement.
His stay was only once interrupted, when, in 1909, he hastened to Salonika, and with Mahmud Shevket under - took a brief and victorious campaign against the reactionaries, who hoped to regain unfettered power under 'Abdul Hamid.
One British and one French division were moved from the peninsula to Salonika early in Oct., but an additional Australian division had arrived a few weeks earlier.
Monro found himself responsible for the British troops at Salonika as well as for the Allied army of the Dardanelles, he placed the latter under charge of Gen.
But as their numbers grew in the autumn, and as their headquarters staff noted how the invaders were dwindling away owing to transfers to Salonika and to no drafts arriving to replenish wastage, it became possible to keep a number of the Ottoman divisions in reserve, well in rear of the fighting fronts or else on the Asiatic side of the Dardanelles.
He had at this time 21 divisions at his disposal, while there were only four British divisions to oppose them at Helles (the last French division left for Salonika during Dec.).
14 1915, partly on account of differences of opinion as to the advisability of proceeding with the dispatch of the expedition to Salonika in the changed conditions created by the resignation of M.
The Committee retained the support of the two army corps stationed at Salonika and Adrianople; and from these garrisons a force of 20,000 men was dispatched against Constantinople.
He was deposed on April 2 7, and sent to Salonika for internment and safe-keeping; and his successor, as Sultan Murad V., was proclaimed the same day.
18, had made Salonika their objective.
5, reached Salonika at about the same time as their rival; but the Turkish commander chose to capitulate to the Greeks, who occupied the city the next day.
The Salonika area became at last the third chief zone of Allied military effort, but no great success attended the expedition until near the close of 1918.
His other books include: Soldiers of Fortune (1897); Captain Macklin (1902); Vera the Medium (1908); The Bar Sinister (1904) and With the French in France and at Salonika (1916).
Her European possessions formed two separate theatres of war, Macedonia and Thrace, which were linked only by the coastal railway Dede Aghach - Seres - Salonika, and this line, open in its middle section to Bulgarian raids from the mountains on the N.
Ordu (Salonika), with the V.
Corps (Salonika), VI.
Further, Bulgaria coveted not only a coast-line on the Aegean but the great port of Salonika itself.
Greece for her part had a minor objective in Epirus - a region of which the northern limit was vague - and as a major objective Salonika and the Aegean littoral beyond, not to mention more remote objects in Asia Minor.
Of `Ali Riza's 25 divisions, 3 were scattered between Prishtina and the Austrian frontier, 31 at Scutari, z at Dibra, and i at Prizren; 2 opposing the Greek main army in Thessaly and 2 the Greek secondary army in Epirus; 3 in the Struma valley and i guarding the railway between Veles and Salonika, making, in all, 16 which were totally unavailable for battle in the decisive theatre.'
In view of the urgency of occupying Salonika before the Bulgarians arrived, the Crown Prince decided to leave only flank guards (5th Div.
A renewed frontal attack at the opportune moment broke into his position at Yenije Vardar, and, threatened on all sides, the Turks withdrew into Salonika, where their commander and 29,000 men surrendered to Constantine on the 9th.
The necessity of maintaining at all costs the single supply route of the army - that through Prilep to points on the Uskub-Salonika railway - no doubt imposed a plan of battle that was to all intents and purposes frontal, for the projected movements of cavalry on Resna and over the Cerna could hardly be regarded as serious attempt at envelopment.
As between Bulgaria and Greece, the former's claim to Salonika seems to have had no better basis than a desire to possess it.
As already mentioned, the Bulgarian 7th Div., in arriving from the Struma side a few days after the Crown Prince had fought his way into Salonika from the W., had lost no time in publicly claiming ownership, and it was with hardly concealed joy that the Greek Government received and promptly executed a request to transport this division by sea to the Thracian theatre.
When war came in the last days of June 1913, outpost "incidents" were occurring at many points of the line from Salonika to the old Serbian frontier at Vranya.
The Bulgarian scheme of operations, necessarily offensive, suffered from the weakness of having two objectives - the Ovche Polye and Salonika - and being based on two main lines of communication diverging towards the rear - Kyustendil and Seres - Drama.
The scheme, therefore, was to begin with a succession of outpost affrays along the whole line (which could be represented as a provocation suffered), and then to strike vigorous offensive blows (a) from Seres towards Salonika, (b) from Strumitsa and Radovishta against the Vardar at Krivolak and Gevgeli (Gyevgheli), (the link between the Serbian and Greek armies); and (c) a blow from the region of Kochana towards Egri Palanka.
On July 7 the Greek right reached the Salonika-Drama railway, and their left from Gevgeli carried the pass over the Belashitsa which leads to Strumitsa.
Proceeding on to Salonika, he established there a " Provisional Government of National Defence," which was in Dec. 1916 duly recognized by England, France and Russia, though not by Italy.