Respecting the salaries of the governors of states, the constitution made no provision.
(1) By leaving the salaries of state officials and the army unpaid.
The state of Alabama appropriated $2000 for teachers' salaries in 1880, increased the appropriation to $3000 in 1884, and for many years gave $4500 annually; the school receives $10,000 annually from the John F.
It is proportional, and is collected by deduction from salaries and pensions paid to servants of the state, where it is assessed on three-eighths of the income, and from interest on consolidated stock, where it is assessed on the whole amount; and by register in the cases of private individuals, who pay on three-fourths of their income, professional men, capitalists or manufacturers, who pay on one-half or nine-twentieths of their income.
(3) That after the said limitation shall take effect as aforesaid, judges' commissions be made quamdiu se bene gesserint and their salaries ascertained and established; but upon,the address of both houses of parliament it may be lawful to remove them.
Congress decided in 1806 in connexion with the payment of salaries to Territorial officials that the 1st of March 1803 was the date when state government began.
Vespasian could be liberal to impoverished senators and knights, to cities and towns desolated by natural calamity, and especially to men of letters and of the professor class, several of whom he pensioned with salaries of as much as £boo a year.
The works of this period are Les Philosophes Salaries, Machiavel juge des revolutions de notre temps (1849), La Federazione repubblicana (1851), La Filosofia della rivoluzione (1851), L' Italia dopo it colpo di Stato (1852), Histoire des revolutions, ou Guelfes et Gibelins (1858; Italian trans., 1871-1873).
The arrears in civil and military salaries average annually about £T1,750,000.
This, however, is not a real decrease, salaries of functionaries not on the active list having been removed to the region of supplementary credits, as are those of civil departments.
In March 1897 the floating debt was calculated by a financial authority in the Fortnightly Review to amount to upwards of £TJ5,000,000, which might be compressed to £T25,000,000 since a large proportion was certainly composed of salaries in arrear and other items of a similar kind which the government would never, under any circumstances, make good.
The maintenance of the court, and the salaries of so large a number of high officials, entailed the imposition of new taxes to meet these expenses.
The state contributes to the support of the Church, builds its churches and provides for the salaries of its clergy, and at the same time it has the right to approve or reject all ecclesiastical appointments and to permit or forbid the execution of all decrees of the Roman See relating to Venezuela.
A medical officer of health for the whole county is appointed by the Council, which also pays half the salaries of local medical officers and sanitary inspectors.
A large part of Asir and northern Yemen has never been visited by Turkish troops, and such revenues as are collected, mainly from vexatious customs and transit duties, are quite insufficient to meet the salaries of the officials, while the troops, ill-fed and their pay indefinitely in arrears, live on the country as best they can.
This failed for several reasons, the foremost being that the language was not Arabic but Phoenician, and because professors and teachers, whose personal ascendancy was based on the official prominence of Italian, did not realize that educational institutions existed for the rising generation rather than to provide salaries for alien teachers and men behind the times.
The state school fund, ranging from about $150,000 to $160,00o a year, is apportioned among the school districts, according to the number of teachers employed, and is used exclusively for teachers' salaries and the supplying of free text-books.
The king was secured a minimum civil list of £1500 a year out of the native revenues; pensions were accorded to other members of the Buganda royal family; the salaries of ministers and governing chiefs were guaranteed; compensation in money was paid for removing the king's control over waste lands; definite estates were allotted to the king, royal family, nobility and native landowners; the native parliament or " Lukiko " was reorganized and its powers were defined; and many other points in dispute were settled.
The priests were to receive fixed salaries; begging, even by monks and poor students, was pr01522.
Bonaparte, in the Concordat which he forced upon the pope in 1801, did not provide for the return of any of the lands of the Church which had been sold, but agreed that the government should pay the salaries of bishops and priests, whose appointment it controlled.
The further independence of judges became a leading issue in 1761 when the assembly insisted that they should be appointed during good behaviour, and refused to pay the salaries of those appointed during pleasure; but the home government met this refusal by ordering that they be paid out of the quit-rents.
Although taxation was seconded by a drastic, indeed harsh, reduction of public salaries and wages (which were cut down by one-tenth all round) yet the years 1884, 1887 and 1888 were notable for heavy deficits in the treasury.
Both the higher and the provincial administrations were thoroughly reformed with the view of making them more centralized and efficient; and the positions and duties of the various magistrates, who now also received fixed salaries, were for the first time exactly defined.
In 1908 the total expenditures for public schools were $3,152,006 ($1,633,594 being for teachers' salaries) and the total receipts were $3,853,695, of which $2,283,038 was from district taxes.
With regard to the earnings of nurses in general, the salaries paid in hospitals have already been mentioned; for private work the scales in force at different institutions vary considerably, according to the other advantages and benefits provided.
The discrepancy between the fees paid by patients and the salaries received by nurses, especially in London, has occasionally excited unfavourable comment, but it is to be remembered that the nurses are maintained when out of work or ill, and have other advantages; many institutions either provide pensions or assist the members of their staff to join the Royal National Pension Fund.
A large number of children's hospitals throughout the country give regular training in the nursing of children; they take probationers at a somewhat earlier age than the general schools; the course is usually shorter (one or two years), and the salaries slightly lower.
Salaries and fees are very much the same in Australia; in Canada and South Africa they are higher.
Salaries are altogether much higher in the United States.
Wages have also been the subject of legislation; special commissions have been empowered to regulate the wages in the so-called " home " industries (sweating), and an arbitration board has been appointed to fix the salaries of clerks in the metal industry, thus minimizing the danger of conflicts in respect of wages having to be settled by means of strikes.
The claims of the railways, however, necessitated retrenchment on official salaries, and the president's plan for conversion of the debt roused unexpected and successful opposition in an ordinarily subservient Congress.
However, these bureaus are seldom well manned, because salaries and tenure of office are seldom such as to induce able men to offer themselves, while the places are often given as rewards for political service.
None of these officials receive salaries; they are only exempt from taxation, and some have grants of land made to them.
Salaries (traitements) are attached to the military and naval recipients of the order when on the active list, viz.
I'm offering you full funding for your endeavor; secure operating quarters, any place of your choice, sizeable salaries for all of you involved and a gift of stock to each that will assure a lifetime income from dividends.
A Republican convention in his district demanded his resignation, and re-election seemed impossible; but he defended himself in two pamphlets, "Increase of Salaries" and "Review of the Transactions of the Credit Mobilier Company," made a village-to-village canvass, and was victorious.
In the prolonged discussions regarding the Bill of Indemnity he was instrumental in saving the life of Haselrig, and opposed the clause compelling all officers who had served under Cromwell to refund their salaries, he himself never having had any.
In connexion with this system of salaries should be mentioned a somewhat reactionary law carried by Pericles in 451, by which an Athenian parentage on both sides was made an express condition of retaining the franchise and with it the right of sitting on paid juries.
The state, the departments, and the communes were thus relieved from the payment of salaries and grants to religious bodies, an item of expenditure which amounted in the last year of the old system to 1,101,000 paid by the state and 302,200 contributed by the departments and communes.
In other cases the inclusion of documents relating to the temple business, payments of tithes and other dues, salaries to temple officials, and such ceremonies as marriages, &c., which may have demanded the presence of the congregation and were at least partly religious in nature, have been allowed to complicate the matter.
Thus, that of 1907-1908 was devoted mainly to raising the salaries of government officials and university professors; even then the maximum for both (in the former class, for an under-secretary of state) was only 500 per annum.
At the beginning of his reign he ordered a recast of the coinage, with serious results to commerce; civil officials were deprived of offices, which had been conferred free, but were now put up to auction; duties were imposed on exported merchandise and on goods brought into Paris; the practice of exacting heavy fines was encouraged by making the salaries of the magistrates dependent on them; and on the pretext of a crusade to free Armenia from the Turks, Charles obtained from the pope a tithe levied on the clergy, the proceeds of which he kept for his own use; he also confiscated the property of the Lombard bankers who had been invited to France by his father at a time of financial crisis.
Out of this fund certain expenses of guardians in connexion with the maintenance of indoor paupers and lunatics, the salaries of officers, the maintenance of children in poorlaw schools, valuation, vaccination, registration, &c., are paid.
The magnitude in 1905 of each of the leading items, and its increase since 1900, then appear as follows: number of factories, 216,262, increase 4.2%; capital invested, $12,686,265,673, increase 41.3% salaries, $574,761,231, increase 50.9%; total wages, $2,009,735,799, increase 29.9%; miscellaneous expenses, $1,455,019,473, increase 60-7%; cost of materials, $8,503,949,756, increase 29.3%; value of products, including custom work and repairing (in such factories), $14,802,147,087, being an increase of 29.7%.
Salaries, too, are small in most states, often not more than onetenth of what a prominent lawyer can make by private practice.
Administrative indifference to the eminently useful officials forming the service has led, in many cases, to diminishing instead of increasing their number and their salaries, but it is obvious that the extension of their duties and a corresponding raising of their status would be much more in accordance with the national interest.
He built temples, theatres, and mausoleums, promoted the arts and sciences, and bestowed honours and salaries upon the teachers of rhetoric and philosophy.
Salaries (traitements) varying in each rank were attached to the order.
In direct taxation; were householders or lodgers as defined in 1887, or tenants of a vessel of, at least, 24 tons; were the recipients of certain salaries or had certain deposits in the public funds or savings banks.
The revenue is derived mainly from import duties, and the most important branches of expenditure are the salaries of public officials, the army, public instruction and debt.
The land revenue proper is assessed in grain, the salaries of government officials, pay of soldiers, &c., being disbursed by "barats" or orders for grain at rates fixed by government, usually about 20% above the city market prices.
The salaries of white teachers advanced from a monthly average of $38.87 in 1903 to $61.84 in 1906.