AMPHIBIA, a zoological term originally employed by Linnaeus to denote a class of the Animal Kingdom comprising crocodiles, lizards and salamanders, snakes and Caeciliae, tortoises and turtles and frogs; to which, in the later editions of the Systema N aturae he added some groups of fishes.
In addition Cuvier accepts the Linnaean subdivisions of Amphibia-Reptilia for the tortoises, lizards (including crocodiles), salamanders and frogs; and Amphibia-Serpentes for the snakes, apodal lizards and Caeciliae.
Salamanders, toads and frogs are numerous, and crocodiles abound.
There are apparently no salamanders or tailed Amphibia.
In 1799' Alexandre Brongniart pointed out the Wide differences which separate the frogs and salamanders (which he terms Batrachia) from the other reptiles; and in 1804 P. A.
Salamanders in the restricted sense (genus Salamandra of N.
Salamanders, far from being able to withstand the action of fire, as was believed by the ancients, are only found in damp places, and emerge in misty weather only or after thunderstorms, when they may appear in enormous numbers in localities where at other times their presence would not be suspected.
AXOLOTL, the Mexican name given to larvae salamanders of the genus Amblystoma.
Tschudi in 1838 for various salamanders from North America, which had previously been described as Lacerta or Salamandra, and which, so far as general appearance is concerned, differ little from the European salamanders.
However, these transformed salamanders, of which twenty-nine were obtained from 1865 to 1870, did not breed, although their branchiate brethren continued to do so very freely.
Formerly bears, wolves and other wild animals took refuge in its fastnesses; and bats, rats, mice and salamanders are frequent visitors.
Cope (16) regarded the Apoda as the extremes of a line of degeneration from the Salamanders, with Amphiuma as one of the annectent forms. In the opinion of P. and F.
Even the inferior arches or chevrons of the tail of salamanders are continuously ossified with the centra.
Z '` common among the salamanders, is unique among the Ecaudata (31).
Howes (39), dealing with the azygous (posterior) cardinal veins in salamanders and some of the Ecaudata.
Although the lungs are present in such forms as preserve the gills throughout life, it is highly remarkable that quite a number of abranchiate salamanders, belonging mostly to the subfamilies Desmognathinae and Plethodontinae, are devoid of lungs and breathe entirely by the skin and by the bucco-pharyngeal mucose membrane (20).
Other newts, and many salamanders, whether terrestrial or aquatic, pair, the male embracing the female about the fore limbs or in the pelvic region, and the males of such forms are invariably devoid of ornamental secondary sexual characters; but in spite of this amplexation the same mode of fecundation by means of a spermatophore is resorted to, although it may happen that the contents of the spermatophore are absorbed direct from the cloaca of the male.
The spermatozoa thus reach the eggs in the oviducts, where they may develop entirely, some of the salamanders being viviparous.
Wilder, "Lungless Salamanders," Anat.