He acted as regent in 1183, but he showed some incapacity in the struggle with Saladin, and was deprived of all right of succession.
Guy was a brave if not a particularly able knight; and his instant attack on Acre after his release by Saladin shows that he had the sentiment de ses devoirs.
It was taken by Saladin in 1187.
Just as the latter afterwards makes Nathan the Wise and Saladin meet over the chess-board, so did Lessing and Mendelssohn actually come together as lovers of the game.
P. 401) until 1187, when Saladin reconquered it, and rebuilt the walls.
Himself (uncle to Philip of France and brother-in-law to Conrad III.) afterwards came to the Holy Land to watch over the interests of his grandson; and he was among the prisoners taken by Saladin at Hittin in 1187.
After the departure of Philip, Conrad fomented the opposition of the French to Richard, and even intrigued with Saladin against him.
When a power arose in Mosul, about 1130, which was able to unify Syria - when, again, in the hands of Saladin, unified Syria was in turn united to Egypt - the cause of Latin Christianity in the East was doomed.
The land was richer in the north: it was protected by its connexion with Cyprus and Armenia: it was more remote from Egypt - the basis of Mahommedan power from the reign of Saladin onwards.
Absentee landlords, he thinks, rack-rented the soil (p. 167), while the "inhuman severity" of their treatment of villeins led to a progressive decay of agriculture, destroyed the economic basis of the Latin kingdom, and led the natives to welcome the invasion of Saladin (pp. 327-331) The French writers Rey and Dodu are more kind to the Franks; and the testimony of contemporary Arabic writers, who seem favourably impressed by the treatment of their subjects by the Franks, bears out their view, while the tone of the assizes is admittedly favourable to the Syrians.
Into the vicissitudes of the fight it is not necessary here to enter; but in the issue Nureddin won, in spite of the support which Manuel gave to Amalric. Nureddin's Kurdish lieutenant, Shirguh, succeeded in establishing in power the vizier whom he favoured, and finally in becoming vizier himself (January 1169); and when he died, his nephew Saladin (Sala-ed-din) succeeded to his position (March 1169), and made himself, on the death of the caliph in 1171, sole ruler in Egypt.
Saladin acted as the peer of Nureddin rather than as his subject; and the jealousy between the two kept both inactive till the death of Nureddin in 1174.
Damascus he acquired as early as 1174; but Raymund supported the heir of Nureddin in his capital at Aleppo, and it was not until 1183 that Saladin entered the city, and finally brought Egypt and northern Syria under a single rule.
In 1186 he attacked a caravan in which the sister of Saladin was travelling, thus violating a four years' truce, which, after some two years' skirmishing, Saladin and Raymund of Tripoli had made in the previous year owing to the general prevalence of famine.
4 The coronation of one French adventurer and the conduct of another, whom the first was unable to control, meant the ruin of the kingdom; and Saladin at last delivered in full force his longdeferred attack.
The Crusade was now at last answered by the counter-Crusade - the jihad; for though for many years past Saladin had, in his attempt to acquire all the inheritance of Nureddin, left Palestine unmenaced and intact, his ultimate aim was always the holy war and the recovery of Jerusalem.
The acquisition of Aleppo could only make that supreme object more readily attainable; and so Saladin had spent his time in acquiring Aleppo, but only in order that he might ultimately "attain the goal of his desires, and set the mosque of Asha free, to which Allah once led in the night his servant Mahomet."
A scheme of taxation - the Saladin tithe - was imposed on all who did not take the cross; and this taxation, while on the one hand it drove many to take the cross in order to escape its incidence, on the other hand provided a necessary financial basis for military operations.'
The siege of Acre, as arduous and heroic in many of its episodes as the siege of Troy, had been begun in the summer of 1189 by Guy de Lusignan, who, captured by Saladin at the battle of Hattin, and released on parole, had at once broken his word and returned to the attack.
Emperors against the "upstart" emperor of the West; he had also allied himself with Saladin, in order to acquire for his empire the patronage of the Holy Places and religious supremacy in the Levant.
The difficulties which had arisen between Isaac Angelus and Frederick Barbarossa contain the germs of the Fourth Crusade; the negotiations between Richard and Saladin contain the germs of the Sixth.
Henry thus gained a basis in the Levant; while the death of Saladin in 1193, followed by a civil war between his brother, Malik-alAdil, and his sons for the possession of his dominions, weakened the position of the Mahommedans.
Malik-al-Adil, the brother of Saladin, had by 1200 succeeded to his brother's possessions not only in Egypt but also in Syria, and he granted the Christians a series of truces (1198-1203, 1204-1210, 1211-1217).
Here the sultan reiterated terms which he had already offered several times before - the cession of most of the kingdom of Jerusalem, the surrender of the cross (captured by Saladin in 1187), and the restoration of all prisoners.
The Ayyubites had always been, on the whole, chivalrous and tolerant: Saladin and his successors, Malik-al-Adil and Malik-alKamil, had none of them shown an implacable enmity to the Christians.
The kingdom of Jerusalem, as we have seen, had profited by the alliance of Damascus as early as 1130, when the fear of the atabegs of Mosul had first drawn the two together; and when Damascus had been acquired by the rule of Mosul, the hostility between the house of Nureddin in Damascus and Saladin in Egypt had still for a time preserved the kingdom (from 1171 onwards).
Saladin had united Egypt and Damascus; but after his death dissensions broke out among: the members of his family,' which more than once led to wars between Damascus and Cairo.
Saladin t 1193.
Once more, in spite of Mongol intervention, Damascus and Cairo were united, as they had been united in the hands of Saladin; once more they were united in the hands of a devout Mahommedan, who was resolved to extirpate the Christians from Syria.
The sultan, who had risen from a Mongolian slave to become a second Saladin, and who combined the physique and audacity of a Danton with the tenacity and religiosity of a Philip II., dealt blow after blow to the Franks of the East.
In i166, while it had been still further extended in the Saladin tithe of 1188.
His history of the Atabegs was written about 1200, and it presents in a light favourable to Zengi and Nureddin, but unfavourable to Saladin (who thrust Nureddin's descendants aside), the history of the great Mahommedan power which finally crushed the kingdom of J erusalem.'
Side by side with Beha-ud-din's life of Saladin, Ibn Athir's work is the most considerable historical record written by the Arabs.
From the Arabic point of view the life of Richard's rival, Saladin, is described by Beha-ud-din, a high official under Saladin, who writes a panegyric on his master, somewhat confused in chronology and partial in its sympathies, but nevertheless of great value.
Lestrange's Palestine under the Moslem, and to Stanley Lane-Poole's Life of Saladin and his Mahommedan Dynasties (the latter a valuable work of reference).
Trained scholars were sent there annually by the French government: Cagnat, Saladin, Poinssot, La Blanchere, S.
The crusading princes of Antioch never held the place, though they attacked it in 1124; and Saladin, who took it in 1183, made it a stronghold against them and the northern capital of himself and his successors until the Tatar invasion of 1260.
This reputation rose steadily; there were twenty copies (one of them written by Tabari's own hand) in the library of the Fatimite caliph `Aziz (latter half of the 4th century), whereas, when Saladin became lord of Egypt, the princely library contained 1200 copies (Maqrizi, i.
Hisp. (1883-1885); Saladin found his historian in the famous `Imad uddin (d.
1267) Wrote a well-known History of Saladin and Nureddin, taking a great deal from `Imad uddin.
It became the seat of the Ayyubite sultan Saladin in 1184; was bequeathed in 1233 to the caliphs of Bagdad; was plundered by the Mongols in 1236 and in 1393 by Timur, and was taken in 1732 by the Persians under Nadir Shah.
He won a brilliant victory over the forces of Saladin at Arsuf (1191), and twice led the Christian host within a few miles of Jerusalem.
Hastily patching up a truce with Saladin, under which the Christians kept the coast-towns and received free access to the Holy Sepulchre, Richard started on his return (9th October 1192).
The crusaders, after failing before it in 1099, captured "Giblet" in 1103, but lost it again to Saladin in 1189.
Unable to revive the African dominion, William directed his attack on Egypt, from which Saladin threatened the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem.
His admiral Margarito, a naval genius equal to George of Antioch, with 600 vessels kept the eastern Mediterranean open for the Franks, and forced the all-victorious Saladin to retire from before Tripoli in the spring of 1188.
In 1090 it passed to the Seljuks, and in 1134 to Jenghiz Khan; but after 1145 it remained attached to Damascus and was captured by Saladin in 117 5.
Saladin besieged it unsuccessfully in 1182.
It was captured by the Moslems in 638 and by the Crusaders in 1102, by Saladin in 1187, recaptured by the Crusaders in 1191, and finally lost by them in 1265, since when till its recent settlement it has lain in ruins.
They resulted in heavy Christian losses, the death of Shirkuh and the appointment of Saladin as vizir.