The great order of Ungulata is represented by various forms of sheep, as many as ten or twelve wild species of Ovis being met with in the mountain chains of Asia; and more sparingly by several peculiar forms of antelope, such as the saiga (Saiga tatarica), and the Gazella gutturosa, or yellow sheep. Coming to the deer, we also meet with characteristic forms in northern Asia, especially those belonging to the typical genus Cervus.
The sheep-like saiga, Saiga tatarica, of the Kirghiz steppes stands apart from all other antelopes by its curiously puffed and trunk-like nose, which can be wrinkled up when the animal is feeding and has the nostrils opening downwards.
More or less nearly related to the saiga is the chiru, Pantholops hodgsoni, of Tibet, characterized by the long upright black horns of the bucks, and the less convex nose, in which the nostrils open anteriorly instead of downwards.
Thick, evidently relics from the Ice Age, covered by an upper layer of Post-Tertiary deposits containing numbers of perfectly wellpreserved mammoth remains, rhinoceros, Ovibos, and bones of the horse, reindeer, American stag, antelope, saiga and even the tiger.
Heinsii), we find one moufflon (Musimon vignei), formerly known only in the Himalayas, the Chinese antelope (Antilope subgutturosa) and the saiga antelope in the steppe's, the Siberian ibex and another goat, the yak, the zebu or Indian ox, the common ox, the camel and the dromedary.
Before an explosive, 1, r, d are often represented by i: saiga (saiga), vaiga (valga), laigo (iargo), maire (madre), paire (padre).