Saif al-din Abu Bakr, 635637 (1238-1240).
His later life was spent in various parts of the Moslem world, in Aleppo with Saif-ud-Daula (to whom he dedicated the Book of Songs), in Rai with the Buyid vizier Ibn `Abbad and elsewhere.
In the 10th century the centre of interest is in the court of Saif ud-Daula (addaula) at Aleppo.
Abu Firas (932-968) was a member of the family of Saif ud-Daula, a soldier whose poems have all the charm that comes from the fact that the writer has lived through the events he narrates (ed.
32 vols., Cairo, 1869, &c., translated in part by Terrick Hamilton, 4 vols., aondon, 1820), and the Story of Saif ibn Dhi Yezen (ed.
822), whose works, though now lost, are often cited; and Saif ibn `Omar at-Tamimi, whose book on the revolt of the tribes under Abu-Bekr and on the Mahommedan conquests was much used by Tabari.
Wellhausen has thoroughly examined the work of Saif in Skizzen and Vorarbeiten, vi.
Later he went to the court of the Hamdanid Saif addaula, from whom he received a warm welcome and a small pension.
In 994 Mahmud was made governor of Khorasan, with the title of Saif addaula (ud-daula) ("Sword of the State") by thee Samanid Nuh II.
Nall is given along with his own former title, Saif addaula Mahmud.
In 1176 he conquered Saif-ud-din of Mosul beyond the Euphrates and was recognized as sovereign by the princes of northern Syria.
Later the brothers Nasir ad-Daula and Saif ad-Daula ruled over Mesopotamia and North Syria respectively.
Mesopotamia fell to one of his sons, Saif ad-Din, and branches sprang up at Sinjar and Jezira.
Malik al-Adi~ Saif al-din AbC Bakr, 596615 (1199-1218).
The Ilamdnid Saif addaula shortly after this assumed the governorship of Aleppo, and became involved in a struggle with the Ikshid, whose general, Kgfur, he defeated in an engagement between Horns and Hamab (Hamath).
In a later battle he was himself defeated by the Ikshid, when an arrangement was made permitting Saif addaula to retain most of Syria, while a prefect appointed by the Ikshid was to remain in Damascus.
The representative of the other branch, Saif addaula, the prince of Haleb (Aleppo), conducted the war against the Byzantines with great valour till his death in 356 (A.D.
Mo'izz addaula died in the same year as Saif addaula, leaving his power to his son Bakhtiyar `Izz addaula, who lacked his father's energy and loved pleasure more than business.
It had been rebuilt by Harun al-Rashid in 796 A.D., refortified at great expense by Saif addaula, the Hamdanid (loth century) and Saiked, and ruined by the crusaders.
He reigned under the title Malik al-Adil Saif al-din.
Syria was immediately overrun by Saif addaula, but he was defeated by KafUr in two engagements, and was compelled to recognize the overlordship of the Egyptian viceroy.